ABC del financiamiento educativo

Ahora que se aproxima la preparación del programa educativo para el sexenio, uno de los temas que ya reclama definiciones estructurales es el financiamiento. Las decisiones al respecto serán más reveladoras que los discursos y documentos del presidente electo y de su equipo en la materia, sobre todo frente a la agenda instalada social y políticamente, destacando puntos como la ampliación de la cobertura en enseñanza superior, la obligatoriedad del bachillerato y los resultados en las pruebas estandarizadas, tan apreciados por los gobiernos. En las resoluciones sobre la inversión se trazarán las prioridades auténticas, o una buena parte de ellas.

Por la trascendencia y carácter polémico conviene su discusión pública, con bases y argumentos racionales, con datos y en función del interés común. En esa intención quiero repasar algunos conceptos básicos del financimiento de la educación superior. Me apoyaré en uno de los principales expertos en nuestro medio, Rollin Kent Serna, profesor de la Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, quien presentó una conferencia en el “Foro sobre financiamiento y gestión de la educación superior”, organizado por la Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Superior en la Universidad de Guadalajara, hace siete años (13 de octubre de 2005).

A juicio de Rollin Kent las principales dimensiones del financiamiento de la educación superior son seis, y su evolución es notoria en el país en las décadas recientes:

1. El origen de los recursos, esto es, quién cubre los costos. El viraje es claro: se ha diversificado la procedencia de los recursos como efecto de la expansión de la enseñanza superior privada.

2. El monto de los recursos. El diagnóstico es poco alentador: el presupuesto para la educación superior prácticamente se estancó y se incumple la asignación del 1% del PIB aprobado hace una década.

3. El modo de asignación de los recursos, expresado en una pregunta múltiple: ¿cómo y quién decide cuánto se va a gastar?, ¿en qué se va a gastar? El modo experimentó grandes cambios con la alternancia política, que obligaron a negociaciones presupuestales entre los poderes legislativo y ejecutivo, y concedieron un poder inédito a los legisladores, que no pocas veces enmendaron los proyectos de egresos pero también originaron prácticas clientelares.

4. El ejercicio del gasto: ¿quién realiza el gasto, en qué lo hace, y cómo lo hace? En el tema la mutación es evidente; dice Rollin Kent: se redujo la discrecionalidad, aumentó la exigencia de rendición de cuentas y nacieron los fondos concursables.

5. Los costos de cada uno de los agentes de la educación: ¿cuánto cuesta educar a un estudiante?, ¿cuánto cuestan los profesores, los investigadores, los administradores y los trabajadores manuales? Convertida en una caja negra todavía, coloca a la eficiencia y a la racionalidad burocrática en posición de mayor poderío.

6. ¿Por qué invertimos en educación superior?, ¿qué espera el país de esta inversión? Quizá la siguiente idea resuma buena parte de lo ocurrido: “En cuanto a los valores que subyacen al gasto educativo, todos sabemos que ha habido un viraje significativo hacia lo utilitario, hacia lo aplicable… Claro, hoy está puesta en la agenda el tema de la equidad, y no podríamos olvidar el debate emergente sobre la llamada ‘sociedad del conocimiento’. Lo que hay, entonces, es un debate sobre los valores.” Así pues, el financiamiento no es un asunto de contabilidad, de pesos y presupuestos, sino de valores y de juegos políticos; un tema de la política más que de la administración.

Finalmente, una de las conclusiones -y consensos- es que la inversión educativa nacional es insuficiente, pero su mayor eficiencia e impacto exigen reformas de fondo para hacerla más redituable. En otras palabras: es irresponsable una inversión sin controles racionales en un país lastrado por la pobreza, la corrupción y la desigualdad; pero una rendición de cuentas con un carácter comprensivo y entendiendo la lógica de la institución universitaria. Por ahora, los indicios consolidan una tendencia regresiva y burocratizante. Si habrá cambios o no, lo sabremos en breve.

Twitter@soyyanez

 

Comentarios

  1. Jorge Caballero dice:

    Account of reaourses spent is a great idea.
    Changing educational investment doesn’t sound good.
    It strikes me that the power of legislators has changed.
    I hope something good result of all this.

  2. Daniela Moctezuma Garcia 1A dice:

    I hope that is performed a good financing for education.

    In point five, I found good questions.

    Is true, financing no only is weights accounting and budgets.

    But values and political games, more than anything political.

  3. JOSE EDUARDO CORTES CERNAS 1B dice:

    The text is very interesting.
    I hope that the financing of education improves.
    I hope there is more transparency in the financing.
    Over time we will see how things turn out.

  4. David Toledo Zúñiga 1B dice:

    The games in politics make that funding is not correct.
    Only the Government knows where comes the money destined for education.
    Perhaps not all the money reaches its destination.
    In a Country with corruption, we don’t know the use given to the money intended for education.

  5. Carlos Alberto Santoyo Lopez 1A dice:

    Education should be a theme of interest and don´t of support.
    Baccalaureate should be obligatory.
    Resources must be well distributed.
    Should have transparency in resource.

  6. Erick Donaldo Arceo Magaña 1D dice:

    I agree with Rollin Kent.
    I think that in all the schools should be that way.
    It’s a pity that in some schools don’t know how to do almost nothing of that
    Good article Doctor, well done.

  7. Saul Alejandro Jimenez Mendoza 1ºA dice:

    Financing of education should be the most important issue in any country.

    I think that if there was so much corruption, there would be more money to support education.

    Better education benefits the country and the student.

    The education will be always the topic most controversial.

  8. Marco Antonio Torres Soriano 1B dice:

    I hope that things will change.
    I hope the government will invest in resources for schools.
    I like that mexico would be better.
    But unfortunately mexico is a very corrupt country.

  9. RICARDO GOMEZ GUERRERO 1B dice:

    Always has been in our country a game of politics, do not take the necessary measures or value good ideas on how to apply the expenses of the country, in investing and if not, is something that should be treated with sensitivity and see especially Reaping the Benefits, where to invest detailed analysis.

  10. Antonio Torres Figueroa dice:

    Many unanswered questions.

    The educational funding.

    Is the loot of a few.

    Using it as a political springboard.

  11. Jesus Roberto Trejo Quiroz 1B dice:

    The funding of the education it’s very important.
    We as students it’s a topic interesting.
    Rollin Kent has all the rightly.
    The point number three and four I think are very important.

  12. kevin roberto gomez peralta 1 "D" dice:

    Has reason rollin Kent.
    Education should be first and foremost.
    Not have to play with the budgets allocated to education.
    If they as want to improve schools.

  13. Marco Antonio Lopez Mendoza 1B dice:

    I very much like some suggestions for our president really only needs to throw him to walk and simply do not remain as they are proposed.

  14. Keila Abigail Valdez Perez 1D dice:

    We know that part of the budget to education ends in the hands of corruption.
    While there are politicians who profit from the education of Mexicans, Mexico cannot move forward.
    It is sad that some politicians only want to gain power and money at the expense of progress in Mexico.
    We hope that the next administration, we improve a little.

  15. Felipe Lao-kiun Alcantar Lam 1B dice:

    I feel like the country is useless
    I think there is a little of hope
    It’s very very weak
    Maybe we can change our cuntry in another life

  16. I hope someday people understand that education
    is the most important and we should spend money on it. Educating, not overpaying for people who do not

  17. Adrian contreras 1 A dice:

    Education is very important.

    Are exciting dimensions of education.

    Point Number six is interesting.

    I hope the government will invest in resources for schools.

  18. Ignacio Ramirez 1A dice:

    Hopefully the government invests the money effectively.
    Hopefully the investment is correct.
    For the country’s growth.
    Good article Dr.

  19. Edwin Preciado dice:

    Very interesting your text
    Very good sentences to reflect.
    Very good way to express
    thanks for your article

  20. well I hope what the administration is very bad

    because they haven’t a good control

    now what Rollin kent said is true and some sad

    in education dont exist some advance and we not know who are responsible.

  21. Edsel Barbosa Gonzalez 1D dice:

    Changing education is me
    excellent but systems that seek nu
    already failed in other countries.
    What surprises me is that the president of
    the prepublica not have any authority.

  22. Amayelli Itzel Silva Contreras 1º D dice:

    At all times of education is important as funding and majea this for an upgrade.

    It is important to show how funding based economic education

    Dimensions of funding shown are interesting.

    The conclusion shows is interesting and shows good reason.

  23. In Mexico has always invested very little money on education.
    The government steals more than it invests in education.
    More money on schools and less money on prisons.
    Mexico spends only 5.7% of its GDP.

  24. José Luis Garza Gallegos 1ºD dice:

    One per cent!! really? That’s sad.
    I think that we don’t pay for investigatores, our teachers uses books and online resources already, we need to make better inversions with our PIB.
    I feel bad, really, our own leaders dont know how much teachers we have, then how they are earning a payment? Where are our taxes?
    About point six, i think that we nee to covr first all the 4 first levels on our education, with that, our students could study something in a private school, but without a good basic education thats near to be imposible.

  25. edgar eduardo zepeda orozco dice:

    The games in politics make that funding is not correct.
    Using it as a political springboard.
    We know that part of the budget to education ends in the hands of corruption.

  26. Jose Manuel Tapia Gonzalez 1A dice:

    The Education is very important in Mexico.
    We’ll be better every day.
    Is very interesing this text.
    I hope the government.

  27. Manuel Salvador Saldaña Rojas 1°A dice:

    The bad politics make that funding is not correct.
    We it’s a topic interesting.
    Is a good publication.
    The publication talk about the true.

  28. Víctor Iván López González 1A dice:

    It is a moot funding.

    Investing can be good or bad.

    Taking risks is always valid.

    To finance either have to be very smart.

  29. Miguel Arias Sandoval 1A dice:

    The financing of the bad education in mexico y is worse that the education in itself.

    Is a good idea the obligatoriness of upper half.

    The reforms don’t the best and don’t competent.

  30. Roberto Banda 1A dice:

    With many revolts discourage me.
    I do not believe that he will help much.
    What bad is that the end depend of political.
    And only enters and exit of their ears the tips of specialists of the matter.

  31. Luis Enrique Flores Ramirez 1°a dice:

    We have to start worrying about our education.

    Resources must be well distributed.

    I like your comment.

    El cambio de la inversión educativa suena bien.

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