Alfabetización: ¿qué festejamos, qué lamentamos?

El 8 de septiembre es el Día Internacional de la Alfabetización. Para la ocasión los medios exhiben las cifras, los expertos opinan y algunas autoridades justifican o cuestionan los datos. He seguido puntualmente las noticias en los últimos años y este no fue distinto. Un breve repaso a continuación.

En un comunicado reproducido por La Jornada (07.09.12), Hugo Casanova, investigador del Instituto de Investigaciones sobre la Universidad y la Educación de la UNAM, afirmó que ahora hay más analfabetos que hace diez años. Sus números contradicen los oficiales: “Las variaciones son mínimas pero preocupantes; por ejemplo, en 2000-2005 teníamos cinco millones 742 mil, y cinco millones 747 mil, respectivamente. En 2010, sumaban cinco millones 948 mil”.

Otras de sus cifras mueven a la reflexión e infieren hipótesis sobre el fin del problema: en 1895, asegura, los analfabetos eran ocho millones y medio; en 1900, siete millones y medio y los mencionados casi seis millones en 2010. En el siglo XIX aquella cifra representaba el 80 por ciento de la población y ahora entre 7.6 y 6.2 por ciento, según la fuente. Hay avances, por supuesto, pues en el 2000 había 56 millones de alfabetizados y ahora son 72 millones.

En los datos de Casanova festejamos avances, pero lamentamos rezagos imperdonables e inequidades: el analfabetismo es de 6.31 por ciento para los hombres y de 8.89 por ciento para las mujeres. Mientras el DF tiene un porcentaje menor al tres por ciento, Chiapas, Guerrero y Oaxaca tienen entre 17 y 18 por ciento.

La afirmación de Pablo Latapí acerca del fin del analfabetismo (necesitaremos todo el siglo XXI, dijo el eximio educador) parece una dramática profecía que el paso de los años y el fin de la primera década del siglo en curso confirman.

Por su parte, el rector de la UNAM, José Narro Robles, ubica en 5.4 millones el número de analfabetos, y enfatiza la situación de medio millón de jóvenes con edades entre 15 y 29 años en condición de iletrados. A las cifras agrega otras conocidas: los diez millones de mexicanos sin primaria completa y más de 16 millones sin secundaria.

En otro medio (vanguardia.com.mx), el 26 de agosto Fernando Damián citó datos del Informe de Seguimiento de Educación Para Todos 2010, de la UNESCO, en el cual se consignan siete millones de analfabetos mexicanos, y un par de datos graves: 1.4 millones de niños que no van a la escuela y un millón 324 mil con menos de cuatro años de escolaridad. Según la nota (Informe, página 114) UNESCO indica: “Las mujeres mexicanas que solamente hablan una lengua indígena tienen 15 veces más probabilidades de ser analfabetas que las que solo hablan español y las tasas de alfabetización de las mujeres que no saben español solo alcanzan la cifra del 5 por ciento”.

Todas las cifras repasadas chocan con los datos y cálculos del sexto informe presidencial (p. 488): en 2011 hubo en el país cinco millones 129 mil analfabetos, y para este año estiman la cifra en cinco millones seis mil personas mayores de 15 años en esa condición, el 6.2 por ciento de la población. Según presidencia, en 2011 había 31 millones 321 mil mexicanos mayores de 15 años en la condición de rezagados, equivalente al 39.3 por ciento del grupo de edad.

Más allá del baile de cifras, natural en un sistema informativo opaco y desconfiable, hay millones de razones para lamentar los escasos avances en la materia, sobre todo porque, como reconoce el informe citado de la UNESCO, hay experiencias en otros países que demuestran efectividad en atacar el problema. Eso México no lo puede presumir. Poco, pues, para festejar, en cambio, muchos motivos reales de honda preocupación y una urgente necesidad de dispensar estrategias con recursos para alfabetizar y escolarizar a millones de mexicanos excluidos.

Visiones ingenuas del analfabetismo

La palabra alfabetización, para mí, está ligada a uno de sus más grandes promotores: Paulo Freire. La postura del educador brasileño es dura contra ciertas visiones, porque postulaba una alfabetización crítica y política. Comparto solo algunos pasajes para ilustrar errores que siguen siendo comunes, incluso, en el documento de la UNESCO antes referido: “Lo menos que podemos decir de nuestra concepción del analfabetismo es que es ingenua, puesto que la comparamos, por un lado con una ‘mala hierba’ (implícita en la expresión común ‘erradicación del analfabetismo’), y por otro, con una ‘enfermedad contagiosa y transmisible’… a veces la concebimos como una ‘úlcera’ deprimente que debería curarse… desde esta perspectiva ingenua o sagaz, el analfabetismo también puede aparecer como una expresión de la ‘incapacidad’ de las personas, de su ‘falta de inteligencia’ o de su proverbial ‘holgazanería’.”

Twitter@soyyanez

 

 

Comentarios

  1. Daniela Moctezuma Garcia 1A dice:

    I do not doubt that now there are more illiterate than ten years ago.

    Quite interesting all the figures that indicate.

    It is sad to know that a woman who speaks 15 different indigenous languages are more likely to be illiterate than one who only speaks Spanish.

    We must put attention to the problem, for decrease the illiterate.

  2. Eduardo Jimenez 1D dice:

    Is impressive the quantiti of illiterate and more if this is on the rise, perhaps laziness or perhaps for other reasons, but.
    The sixth presidential report 5 million 129 thousand peoples are illiterate.

  3. Mónica Reyes dice:

    Es necesario, pues, una “cruzada alfabetizadora” (que casi emule a aquella “evangelizadora”), y que alfabetice en el sentido básico, inicial de la palabra, pero también en el sentido más amplio; es decir, que dé la voz a los que no la tienen, que se apropien de ella, que la recreen, y con ella transformen lo que necesite ser mejorado. Ya no alcanzan, pues, los seis años de primaria para constituir al ciudadano. La complejidad del mundo requiere una mayor formación que habilite a comprender los múltiples aspectos de la vida social, económica y política como condición de posibilidad de la participación democrática responsable. El sistema educativo aún tiene por delante el desafío titánico de llevar a los alumnos más allá de donde llegaron sus padres, no sólo en cantidad de años de escolaridad, sino principalmente de aprendizajes efectivos, relevantes y pertinentes para tod@s los alumn@s.
    En segundo lugar, creo que es preciso construir y hacer efectivo un nuevo concepto de laicidad, centrado en el conocimiento y el respeto de las diferencias.
    En tercer término, y ya entradas en la discusión, la escuela debe preocuparse por construir un conjunto de
    valores democráticos comunes que, además del respeto y la tolerancia ya señalados, deberán incluir la actitud de solidaridad y preocupación por el otro y la participación responsable en la “cosa pública”.
    Habrá entonces, en suma, que REPENSAR la escuela.

    • Mónica, totalmente de acuerdo contigo. La CEPAL, Comisión Económica para América Latina, afirma que en esta región del mundo se necesitan por lo menos 12 años de escolaridad para lograr lo que en otros contextos puede alcanzarse en menos tiempo.

      Por supuesto, la tarea es ardua, e inicia donde dices: repensar la escuela y discutir en serio la educación.

      Saludos y gracias por comentar la nota.

  4. jose adrian contreras ocaranza 1A dice:

    If it is a serious problem.

    It is serious,because there are many people that just completed primary school.

    It must do something about that there are many children do not attend school.

    The word illiterate hearu ugly,but there are many people who in that situation.

  5. David Toledo Zúñiga 1B dice:

    These data are important to Mexico’s history.
    Is disturbing to know that the illiteracy increases with the years.
    The discrimination is influential in this problem.
    I think that it is for lament.

  6. JOSE EDUARDO CORTES CERNAS 1B dice:

    This text is very interesting.
    I did not know that on September 8 was International alphabetization day.
    I think I am not very well aware of the things.
    I think you should inform me more.

  7. Saúl Alejandro Jiménez Mendoza 1°A dice:

    In my opinion some facts are very disturbing.

    I think that should be taking more importance on September 8.

    This wouldn´t happen if the government did a good job.

    We can help a bit so that this problem doesn´t continue to grow.

  8. miguel virgilio jimenez brena 1A dice:

    September 8 must be a reminder about this problem.
    this is very important because we need to decrease this numbers.
    I think goverment don´t give to this problem the attention it would have.

  9. Miguel Arias Sandoval 1A dice:

    This is think, literancy, is a idea that not favorable for people.

    Illiterates don’t something that we are proud.

    But consider it also are people as us.

    And my opinion must not discriminate against such people.

  10. Jose Manuel Tapia Gonzalez 1A dice:

    Is very alarming the that you say Doctor.
    In Mexico the illiteracy is every day more alarming.
    Be interesting see the because the problem.
    Lack more attention in this.

  11. Marco Antonio Torres Soriano 1B dice:

    I think that literacy is mainly due to ignorance.
    Also sometimes by the lack of resources.
    The study is the most important.
    I think people should worry more for education.

  12. Manuel Salvador Saldaña Rojas 1°A dice:

    It’s true that the figures change.
    Literacy is different in DF than other states.
    there discrimination between Man and Woman with the literacy.
    real numbers come to public light

  13. Luis Enrique Flores Ramirez 1°A dice:

    Your comments are very good i congratulate.

    Your comments call me much attention.

    Thank you by sharing this with us.

    It’s very interesting what you mentioned.

  14. Felipe Lao-kiun Alcantar Lam 1B dice:

    That’s why Mexico don’t proceed.
    I feel sad about that information.
    The only thing i can do is read more.
    That’s the only way i can go forward.

  15. Carlos Alberto Santoyo Lopez 1A dice:

    Is incredible that México have not advanced in the last 10 years.
    Don´t import if is much o is not much the people, we have answer the problem.
    We can not entrust in a opaque and unreliable informative system.
    I think, that the illiteracy is not a disease.

  16. Antonio Torres Figueroa dice:

    We have nothing to celebrate.

    An ignorant people is a weak people.

    The authorities have a solution.

    But they do not agree.

  17. Erick Donaldo Arceo Magaña 1 D dice:

    Nice articule Mr. Yañez.
    You’re right about these.
    The Mexican governament want more people ignorance.
    Because if they are ignorance, the governament can to controller easier at the people.

  18. Edwin Preciado dice:

    Very good statistics.
    You should not have so many illiterate in Mexico.
    Should support more the natives here.
    Good comment.

  19. sergio rodrigo ceceña lares 1B dice:

    Nowadays nothing exists more they matter that the education, I think that the governments should him give more importance ” we must not allow that it should gain us the ignorance, for which but we can not take to us only a bad experience “.

  20. I think education is everyone’s responsibility.
    Since the government as well as society.
    To address the low level of education in Mexico, must be attacked from the nucleus of the family.
    The numbers go up and down, the important thing is to promote strategies to leave behind.

  21. Jorge Caballero 1 "D" dice:

    I really like the publication, also the comment by Monica.
    The most important action would be to implement the new way of education.
    We have in mexico very difficult to convince states and people.
    Governments and politicians who do not accept new ways of progress.

  22. Amayelli Itzel Silva Contreras 1D dice:

    The truth is that we are very bad to the educational environment.

    Instead of going into a tailspin improve and that’s not good.

    The data are given, as mentioned, differ but that is not important, what matters is that we lag behind literacy.

    Not much to celebrate on the level where we are as a society.

  23. José Eduardo Aguilar Anguiano 1°B dice:

    It’s a shame that Mexico has a high level of illiteracy.

    It’s an excellent publication.

    I do not know why they have to celebrate a day of illiteracy.

    This is a very serious problem.

  24. José Eduardo Aguilar Anguiano 1°B dice:

    It’s a shame that Mexico has a high level of illiteracy.

    It’s an excellent publication.

    I don’t know why they have to celebrate a day of illiteracy.

    This is a very serious problem.

  25. José Luis Garza Gallegos 1ºD dice:

    Today I met a man from Oaxaca, his name is Fidencio and he didn’t know to write in spanish, but he can speak Masateco.

    3 weeks ago, I met an old woman that never went to school, but she learned to read with cigar boxes and asking to know what it said.

    I think that is too important to know spanish, but is very important to know, at least, what are our indigenous languages.

    Apart of educating everyone, we should store information of our indigenous languages, as they are pronounced, words, grammar, everything you need to learn if you will, because a lot of ancient languages will dissapear in few years.

  26. kevin roberto gomez peralta 1 "D" dice:

    It’s a shame that education in Mexico has not been sufficient to reduce illiterate.
    But these people are generally illiterate only because they speak another language.
    You have to study to speak our language properly.
    And minimized people who are illiterate.

  27. Jesus Roberto Trejo Quiroz 1B dice:

    It’s terrible the number of illiterate, the level of ignorance.
    Too many young people who are in that situation.
    I don’t see something to celebrate, but we have to change those numbers to lower numbers.
    No doubt that we must eradicate this problem quickly.

  28. Christian D. Rentería García 1.-D dice:

    We need to keep improving our knowledge.
    I think in the same way like you, we need to figth against ignorance.
    Most of the kids are suffering because their teachers dont have enough preparation.
    We need to keep hoping that we are going to succed.

  29. Ignacio Ramirez dice:

    This is a problem that has always had México
    The government should invest is better education and prosperity for poor people
    The study is very important to overcome
    Good article Dr.

  30. in my ponion is a very serious problem of social behavior,
    I hope this situation can be resolved, which is through education, the statistics do not lie and the truth is that for the country to improve in terms of not only field of education without culture please greetings Doctor.

  31. Edsel Barbosa Gonzalez 1D dice:

    That is why Mexico is like this, for people
    covering the truth of the country as this,
    Apart from students, parents
    and education authorities do not do something
    to change these sifras illiteracy.

  32. Keila Abigail Valdéz Pérez 1D dice:

    It is sad that some people besides be poor are illiterate.
    The illiteracy closes many doors for people.
    The illiteracy prevents stop being poor.
    While exist illiteracy and quantity of years of school, the country cannot improve.

  33. Oscar Arturo Gonzalez Ramirez 1°B dice:

    This text is very interesting.

    The figures are somewhat interesting.

    The situation of half a million young people aged between 15 and 29 is a big number that is worrying many anafalbetos.

    Mexican women who only speak an indigenous language are 15 times more likely to be illiterate than those who only speak Spanish

  34. Luis Manuel Cruz Ortiz 1 A dice:

    You are quite right.
    We need literate people.
    The illiterate are ignorant, but sometimes it is not your fault.
    Thanks for sharing your wisdom.

  35. Roberto Banda Flores 1A dice:

    The numbers are very large, scary.

    As a kid, thought that in Latin America, Mexico is the best, until it comes to school.

    My only regret is having been indifferent to things.

    Thanks for the info, the best we can do is to teach.

  36. Victor Ivan Lopez Gonzalez 1A dice:

    Too bad people have illiteracy.

    More women than men have that.

    Should change that.

    This is a big problem.

  37. Luis Enrique Flores Ramirez 1°A dice:

    Thanks for sharing this with us.

    Is very interesting what mentioned.

    The title caught my attention.

    Maybe that’s a big problem.

  38. Jever Amezcua Garcia 1D dice:

    Mexico hides the true figures as these reflect the real economy.

    Figures and argue that the government designates a resource studies.

    Good teachers are needed to improve the situation.

    The big problem of literacy are in rural areas and have no access to education.

  39. People are so inccoerent because we don’t have or think abour the situation because others need to learn more things that people of other education dont interpret in the best way.. And we could be to others the last intelligents and education finished in their words.

    I’m Inalfabetize. haha

  40. Hector Jose Manzo Briceño 1D dice:

    I feel that we should not celebrate.
    Because celebrating something that should give penalty.
    But the government does not want people studied because they fear.
    I agree with the data you posted.

  41. Jose Ivan Martinez Najera 1D dice:

    In Mexico the illiteracy is every day more alarming.
    Felipe say lies, like always.
    But i feel that us all be should say something to Felipe Calderon.
    And with Peña Nieto, Tsssss!.

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