Chile: rumbo al Primer Mundo

Chile había comprado boleto al Primer Mundo, según Andrés Oppenheimer. Subió al avión con apenas una porción minoritaria de su población y mientras unos pocos despertaron en el Palacio de La Moneda o en las grandes capitales del orbe, la mayoría, millones de chilenos, estaban en las calles protestando por el sueño falso, con una mezcla de rabia y dignidad.

Andrés Oppenheimer, según la solapa del libro que comento, es “uno de los periodistas más influyentes de la lengua española”. Con importantes reconocimientos y una vasta experiencia en medios estadounidenses e ingleses, ha escrito también ya varios libros, el más reciente (o uno de sus más recientes) “¡Basta de historias! La obsesión latinoamericana con el pasado y las 12 claves del futuro”. Presumía, como Francis Fukuyama, poseer la varita mágica para enterrar la historia y salvarnos del atraso intelectual.

La obsesión iluminista y el talante ideológico del autor se reflejan en la caricaturización de la portada: cada uno con su libro en la mano, de historia, supongo, los presidentes y líderes políticos de la izquierda latinoamericana (Chávez, Correa, Cristina Fernández, Evo Morales).

El séptimo capítulo lleva por nombre el de esta colaboración: “Chile: rumbo al Primer Mundo”. Los títulos de los apartados son elocuentes; ejemplifico: 6,500 becas de posgrado en el exterior; Apostando a la “circulación de cerebros”; Los alumnos pagan cuando se reciben; Más ingenieros, menos filósofos; Filósofos sí, estudiantes eternos no; El auge de las universidades privadas; Clases de economía, in english; “Las universidades privadas producen un país elitista”; “Una versión idealizada de la historia”; El viaje de Lagos a Silicon Valley; El consejo de innovación, copiado de Finlandia; Los secretos del éxito chileno, según Bachelet; El gabinete más globalizado”; Chile, en camino al Primer Mundo; Las asignaturas pendientes de Chile; El plan de Piñera: pasar al Primer Mundo en 2018; “La educación es nuestro Talón de Aquiles” y ¿Llegará Chile a la meta?

El capítulo tiene un inicio prometedor para los lectores identificados con las tendencias neoliberales en economía y neoconservadoras en política: “Cuando le pregunté a Bill Gates cuáles son los países latinoamericanos más avanzados en educación, investigación y desarrollo, el primero que le vino a la mente fue Chile”. Son las primeras letras. El país más globalizado de Latinoamérica, con la economía más globalizada, era orgullo del multimillonario estadounidense y de los organismos financieros internacionales.

En materia educativa los avances registrados en la obra se califican como “progresos sustanciales”. La evolución de la educación superior merecía elogios: “aunque venía de una base muy baja, modernizó su educación superior más rápidamente que ninguno de sus países vecinos, con algunos golpes de audacia que no se vieron en otros países de la región.” Entre otros golpes de audacia, las cuotas que debían pagar los estudiantes de la Universidad de Chile (estatal, semipública), que oscilaban de los 3,200 dólares en carreras de humanidades a 6,900 en medicina, en el marco de un proceso iniciado por el dictador Pinochet y que desmontó la red de universidades estatales, con la complacencia de las élites empresariales, los gobiernos de la democracia y la iglesia, empresaria de la educación en el país andino.

Solo en algunas páginas, dedicadas a contar y analizar la entrevista con el rector de la Universidad de Chile, Víctor Pérez Vera, Oppeheimer parece asimilar datos de una cruda realidad que el resto de sus entrevistados calificarían como delirios del pasado. Los datos de Pérez Vera, citados por el periodista de origen argentino, revelan la situación de la educación en su universidad: 65% del presupuesto proviene de la venta de servicios, 25% de los aranceles de los estudiantes y el 14% de la ayuda financiera estatal (sic). Aunque la suma rebasa el 100%, las proporciones exhiben el perfil de la institución.

Muchos párrafos me gustaría citar pero me quedaré con un par de ideas. Escribe Oppenheimer: “¿Y pueden los estudiantes de origen humilde pagar esas sumas? Le pregunté. Pérez Vera apretó los labios y meneó la cabeza, como diciendo que muchos sí, y muchos no.” La otra es, posiblemente, una de las pistas para entender el movimiento estudiantil que hoy recorre las calles chilenas: “El día de mañana, cuando la élite dirigente provenga de ambientes cada más cerrados (sic), cada vez más excluyentes y menos diversos, yo creo que va a haber una dificultad: no va a permitirnos ser un país más justo, solidario y equitativo. Y no porque no lo quieran, sino porque no lo van a conocer… una clase dirigente que no ha sido formada en un ambiente de diversidad laboral y disciplinaria corre el riesgo de inconscientemente desconocer y no ser sensible a las demandas de la gran mayoría de este país. Eso está pasando”. Fue profético el rector Pérez Vera, a quien calificaron otros entrevistados como “una versión romántica de la historia”; romántica y falsa, para ser precisos.

Los subtítulos son afortunados y hecho con milimétrico tino. El capítulo se lee con facilidad y el optimismo rebosa en casi todas las páginas, con excepción de las que repasan la entrevista al rector citado. Un capítulo y una obra altamente recomendables para comprender cómo se construye el nuevo sentido común. Pero hay una mala noticia: ya no sirve sino como literatura de ficción, de un mundo que se había prometido y se hizo pedazos. Tendrá que reescribirse y en su próxima edición cambiar el nombre del capítulo 7, o suprimirlo, porque contradice la tesis de que la historia no importa y sólo cuenta mirar al futuro con optimismo. En efecto, “Basta de historias” es hoy contrariado por la realidad en varios países del mundo. Basta de historias, es lo que dirían los estudiantes chilenos, los indignados españoles o los estudiantes norteamericanos, a ese nuevo intento de una historia color de rosa que empezó a resquebrajarse en las calles, en redes sociales y en la imaginación colectiva.

Comentarios

  1. Alicia Soto 1°A dice:

    Of course, Chile could be first world, in fact I think any country can be the first world if we put education as a priority.
    It says what you, more engineers… that point I liked, the country needs people who not only know sitting behind a desk or in a beautiful office. The country needs people new and experienced who knows get their hands on what we have and need.
    Education in Chile is very good, really professors and schools very good,excellent can say.But of course as expected…education, universities have their cost and unfortunately not many have to sustain, young that wish and not can study.
    Maybe young they can do much for the country..

    • Arthur Edwards dice:

      Alicia,

      No creo que leiste las dudas al final. El sistema chileno no es incluyente. El alumno paga mucho más y muchos no pueden entrar. Por tanto, lo que sucede es que tienes un grupo de alumnos muy homogeneos,que tienen las mismas carácteristicas y que se excluye a mucha gente. Por tanto, parece que el sistema educativo chileno está hecho para favorecer a ciertas personas que serán impresarios, líderes, politicos etc. mientras muchos (o la mayoría de alumnos, quedarán como obreros, sin acceso a la educación. Lo que peleamos Juan Carlos y yo es que la educación y acceso a la información son derechos humanos universales. Que TODOS deben tener derecho a la educación superior y que el progreso de una sociedad depende de una población bien educada. Cuando dejas de educar a cualquier individuo por cualquier motivo, quebrantas lo que es un derecho que tenemos todos y le niegas la posibilidad de participar economica y socialmente a su plentitud. Favor de leer los últimos dos párrafos de nuevo.

      TU INGLES ES EXCELENTE!

  2. José Manuel dice:

    Lo de Chile es producto de un país que pudo alcanzar la meta de crecimiento económico y de ahorro interno en un modelo neoliberal, México lo hizo en el pasado con el MISI nacionalista, en ambos casos se advierte una conclusión: se tenía el dinero suficiente para pasar al primer mundo, pero ¿Qué paso? en las dos naciones y modelos apareció una fuerte concentración del ingresos en pocas manos, unos por corruptos y falta de visión, y otros por desencadenar frenéticamente los grandes postulados de Milton Friedman.

  3. Excelente post, Juan Carlos, y muy buena la comparacion de Oppenheimer con Fukuyama; ambos apelan a las recetas superficiales. Para muestra basta un boton: preguntarle sobre educacion a Bill Gates lo pinta de cuerpo entero.
    En la Argentina de los años 90 vivimos la fantasia de estos profetas que pregonaban que con el libre comercio y la apertura irrestricta entrariamos al primer mundo en andas; asi nos fue.
    Saludos desde Buenos Aires,
    Alejandro Tortolini.

  4. aldo david hernandez castañeda 1B dice:

    Chile may be the first world if is the lack no but suggest that citizens come together to form a better world and has a better education than you already have today evolved incredible education. But also the other countries we can to get what Chile reach all united just need to know

  5. Jonathan Andres Llamas Cruz 1B dice:

    What a chapters of the book, it explain us that, although the country says that it has money to “be better”, that’s a lie. Is supposed to the country is all together, not just the called “High Society”. They don’t think about the economy in general, they just want to be better some people, and with this they just get that injured people, be worse. To achieve this general betters, is important to know, in what level is all the country, to can get an acceptable better and no just a bonus to people who is in a good economy position.

  6. Luis Antonio Naranjo Mora 1B dice:

    As it says in your publication: “El movimiento estudiantil chileno y sus enseñanzas”, about how private universities produce an elitist country. Talking about Chile’s situation many students not have enough money to pay for certain careers in some universities. Few students can afford these careers. Making an elitist society that reflects social inequality.

  7. José Carlos Llerenas Montes 1-A dice:

    I think that Mexico and Chile are similar in some things.
    Especially in the situation of the most poor students.
    To produce more and better professionals, education should be accessible to all people.
    Unfortunately, these young don’t have the resources to pay it, and the most of them end up dropping their studies.

  8. diego alejandro 1b dice:

    It is a commentary where the power is reflected in chile results and students with very good numbers. In recent years Chile found that knows how to use their resources well and can be compared with other countries.Oh I liked a paragraph read to publish that “In education the progress in the work are qualified as “substantial progress”.”. The evolution of higher education deserves praise, “but came from a very low base modernized their higher education faster than any of their countries neighbors, with some bold strokes that were not seen in other countries in the region. “

    • Arthur Edwards dice:

      Diego,

      Excelente escrito..pero me da la impresion que quizá empleaste el traductor demasiado.. Acuerdate…2 veces y hasta tres palabras. Sin embargo, te estás esforzando, y los errores son “BUENOS” me gustan como puntos de enseñanza!

  9. osdy gersaid fletes arreola 1 "A" dice:

    As education is a topic that is very hand if a country wants to be first world.

    All countries should generate ideas to increase their education and implement new formulas for low-income students to study and excel.

    Once countries achieve these techniques can now be first-world countries because the education and youth are the future.

  10. Julio Daniel Rodriguez Puga 1 A dice:

    In my opinion chile is doing a fine job as a country. Chile is supporting their young much about the study. In Mexico we should learn even a little more Chileans and support the study. Congratulations to the Chileans and grabbing continue well in this area

  11. Ivan Alejandro Novela Macias. 1°B dice:

    Aunque por un lado, no me gusta, no todo el mundo tiene la oportunidad de estudiar una carrera debido a los altos costos, también creo que es algo que tiene que hacer por el bien del futuro de Chile. Ahora bien, ahorrar para la educación que a su vez es muy elitista, pero que la gente y el proyecto que Chile tiene un avance del futuro de los preparados

  12. Ivan Alejandro Novela Macias. 1°B dice:

    Though on one side I do not like not everybody has the opportunity to study a career due to the high costs, also I think it’s something that has to do for the good of the future of Chile. ok now save money for education which in turn is very elitist, but with that people and the project that Chile has a advancing the future of prepared

    • Arthur Edwards dice:

      I understood your English perfectly. Some errors, but they are minor. Interesting argument! It may cost too much for everyone to go to the university…in that way Chile serves a particular population. But if you are poor, is it a fair system for you?

  13. Juan Pedro Tintos Mendoza 1 B dice:

    Hahahahahahaha it was funny the way you finished this article Juan Carlos: “it just work as a fiction story” lol, sadly true, but funny. I´m agree with you Juan Carlos, maybe that is the reason why the students made all this movement against the government. It is curious the number you give about universities resources, part from the students, part from the programs and just the minimum part form the government, I just wonder if Mexico is in the same situation or not, I just hope it isn´t worse…

  14. My opinion is that CHILE can become a first world country,
    I not know about their curriculum, but I believe this text that Chile is a country with good schools.
    Not doubt that having a low level of study.

  15. Armando Vazquez Zamora 1° B dice:

    It’s commentary where is give 6,500 scholarships for students can continue study and finish yours studies. As ending the engineers that many and few philosophers. In Chile the career cheaper can is of humanities with $3,200 dollars of while the medical have to pay an approximate of $6,900 dollars for can study.

  16. 1A Omar Alejandro Rios Del Toro dice:

    very interesting the support to the brains of future. The comparison is very shine on the scholarships given. CHILE is a country with good contributions to the minds or professionals of the morning. The work or publications have on big value to know initiatives to our country. I think what should put more notes positive good luck Dr.

  17. J. Enrique Madrigal Diaz 1A dice:

    Chile a country in direction to first world, Chilean united by a common cause. I think that is the key that Chile and Chilean are achieving this.
    The Chilean have shown the repeatedly that together for a common good is easier to make this.
    Why not take these examples as a country? I think Mexico are great coutry and people also, just need act.

  18. Maria Dolores Adán Santillan dice:

    In my opinion is very important to change that took chile education, the economy, it shows the process facilities, scholarships awarded to different students.

    Thanks to the audacity is exceeded and an example to follow.
    like Mexico a lot relying on our side let happen.

    What we should do is work and strive to get ahead and not be so conformist.

    we can do because we are a country that has almost everything and what we need is to be more optimistic stories and let us look to the future is what we want for our children.

  19. Javier Alexis Cernas Avalos 1°D dice:

    Problem is that everything is about money. If people tries to do everything of diferent way maybe their life would be diferent. Education is only way that one country changes. I agree with all the text because we cant be waiting for solutions, we have that be the solution.

  20. Jose Antonio Aguiar Palacios 1A dice:

    Sure. Chile is a great country that could become to be the best in the world. I will like to read that book !Basta de historias! It looks very interesting. I like that phrase more engineers, fewer philosophers! If I think we should be better as a person. It is impossible to pay that amount of students is much money.

  21. cesar castro carrillo 1* d dice:

    i think that chile was able to be the first world country should improve more things, this very well what i do, but recently concluded must be different because in this way only those who have more resources to study and not the humble must have the resourcec to stop studying and pursue other options.

  22. Ismael Perez Avalos 1B dice:

    Chile have all the necessary stuff to be an important country. It’s a shame that the resources haven’t been administrated very well. It is easy to talk about problems, the difficult part is find solutions to them. In Chile’s case worth it to work and find solutions to have a better future and don’t letdown what have been built so far.

  23. 1A Ricardo Ploneda Espindola dice:

    Like every country, Chile can be first world. Just need the support of all the country and goverment act for the future of the country,the focus of education is important in all country specialy in the poor and median wordl country.
    We need to strengthen that part because the child are the future of the world and we need that they are prepared to not make the same mistakes that we did.

  24. Rubén Ricardo Trujillo García 1 A dice:

    In my opinion I think chile if you are capable of achieving that goal that you have provided.

    It demonstrated that it has improved a lot in its economy. In his handling of its objectivesor goals.

    I hope and can achieve what they have planned and there is no hope thatcorruption in Mexico for the welfare of Chileans.

  25. with effort and dedication can achieve a country better.

    I think that with the support students, is helping the future and improvement the society.

    I think Chile is becoming in country first World for work from day to day.

    The future of nations are the young.

  26. Irving De La Mora 1B dice:

    Really has it something to envy the public education to private education? Professors? Students? Educational quality? While we wait a miracle to change this situation in this country, we’ll see how some countries do something to re-evolve the education. We’ll be patients; some day will be our turn.

  27. María Lizbeth Ochoa Sarmienta 1B dice:

    Certainly this situacion “enough stories” ,we are tired of poverty of promises political that only come the power and forget all the promised. Chile and many more countries are in the same situation.
    as published all the injustice and are not yet able to do something.

  28. Pedro Madrigal Velasco 1°B dice:

    I think that whatever country this in to capacity to for grow in any direction either economic or educationally.
    Even Mexico can develop the joke is that want and know take decision.
    Seems very relevant this book me would like to buy.

  29. Pedro Madrigal Velasco 1°B dice:

    I think that any country has to ability to for grow in any direction either economic or educationally.
    Even Mexico can develop the joke is that want and know take decision.
    Seems very relevant this book me would like to buy.

  30. Alejandro Gilberto Heredia Moran 1B dice:

    I think that Chile can obtain what it sets out if the people work together. And not only Chile, any country can do it. Many believe it is appropriate to coups to remedy past mistakes. All we know that the education is the only way to improve. We have to do the reality, we must leave of will think that if we protested by a better world it presses to us. It is worth to work and if we do we will achieve.

  31. EDGAR DANIEL GAITAN RODRIGUEZ 1°A dice:

    Chile may be the first world, it is important to know at what level is the entire country, you can get a better and more acceptable not only a bonus to people who are in a good position economy. The country needs new and experienced people who know get their hands on what we have and need.

  32. Carrillo Mosqueda Gustavo Alberto 1-B dice:

    My opinion is that each country is moving as it wants in society, in Mexico it should implement something to into account all these aspects. But it should not be the if not better than ideas.

  33. adrian alejandro vizcaino martinez 1B dice:

    The best things cost, many youth are wasted due to lack of support, Chile has everything to be first, dumb people are not indifferent to this situation, the problem was that no one dares to do anything. A teacher told us that Third World countries could never be first world will be?, I wonder why?

  34. Ernesto Alcaraz Andrade 1*D dice:

    In latinoamerica the education is a very serious topic that looks like doesnt have answer.

    In my opinion is because is very expensive and a big part of population can’t pay for it.

    I think that in mexico and chile one of theirs problems is when the education gets private and is even more difficult can have the opportunity to estudy.

  35. Ivan Alejandro Vega Flores 1A dice:

    In my opinion, that’s the reality. A good education could generate good professionals ready for progress and make their best for the country. If Chile is in that way to the progress, why we aren’t? Because the way of govern a country it’s quite different between Chilean government and Mexican government. I hope Chile rise to the First World countries block and the Mexican government see what does the Chileans do to get into that block and do something about it.

  36. Roberto Quintero Cervantes 1`D dice:

    Mexico and Chile have the similar situation of the poor education.There is a lot of people here in Mexico that can’t pay a reasonable price to study.It’s a very serious problem because there isn’t enough support to the young men and women.Hopefully they can make an effort and help these kids.

  37. salvador hernandez francisco 1°A dice:

    I have nothing against the university instead of it I like it to me, but not ce nothing against private schools far from schools of lower class or they can call. but if I can know something and that when one has proposed to reach the goal of wanting and wanting to believe me miracles makes them self. And believe me my dear CHILE want is power ….. same thing I tell my people MEXICO …!!!!

  38. Eduardo Valentín Hernández Aguilar 1-B dice:

    obviously education is the answer for the issues that occurs in a country, chile could be the first, in my opinion their education system is better than others, but the disadvantage is that is too expensive, their costs are very high and not all people can afford it, in my opinion this is called elitism, maybe if the university offers a opportunity to other people, the country in all senses improves a better system.

  39. alvaro arellano galvez 1"A" dice:

    My opinión that any country can be of first world.
    Single lack have more motivation and projects to the education and support more since it is it Essentials in these time and yes is supports the education any country can be of first world since it the young are the future of every country.

  40. Rommel Salvador Juárez Rodríguez 1 B dice:

    Chile, a first world country, ha! Chile is a country even worse than Mexico, just by telling their opportunities for the education, because while in Mexico we pay “high” fees (that aren’t anything in compare with the fees in the universities of the USA or other countries) in Chile they pay about the triple of Mexico’s, and that doesn’t give the people the opportunity of low resources that, in fact, they want to study. Mexico could be a first world country if we keep going on, the key for reaching that goal will be improving the education.

  41. Francisco Javier Chan Ramirez 1°B dice:

    Juan Carlos, by doing several references to chile? Just curious, reading it’s true education is always a very important factor and as you know the statistics speak for themselves.

  42. In my opinion, the question of all this subject is What is the price of be a First World Country?
    In economy the country will be better than before but in the society is where the price affect cause not all of us cant go at the same rythm and not all of us can’t afford the changes.
    In the process of change to be a first world country is when the society it is affected, is where only a select group can continue having a good way of life and others have to resign, cause they can’t pay an education or a house or something else and in consecuence are less prepared to face the life. Causing an inequality between social classes.

  43. Manuel ALejandro Rodriguez Valdovinos 1°D dice:

    The Chileans have to take action to achieve that goal, not just be protesting.
    Protest not any good, but we must all consider the “best actions to words.”

  44. luis humberto urzuaaraiza dice:

    Ithink if we all intend to change a bit. Would not be with economic problems. So as a step in the porfiriato epoca Mexico became the first country in the world. It is easier to climb back up to continue supportive our situation,how exciting would that people from other countries comment that Mexico is a first world or are proneto slorc as we discussed in Chile.

  45. Miguel Leòn Bautista 1º "A" dice:

    I think Chile like any other country can become a first world country.
    And there`s no better way to do that with education that can lead to the top.
    And as I said before everyone not has the good fortune to study a good race.
    If everyone could anywhere in the world would be different.

  46. Rodríguez Niebla Manuela 1B dice:

    The situation seems hopeful. Chile is idealizes as example in education, investigation and development. The plan is to be first world for year 2018. I seem well that they grant scholarship to student the detail is brain drain.

  47. Jose Nicanor Ruiz Lopez 1.D dice:

    In my opinion the education is the answer for the issues that occurs in a country.
    By that yes supports the education ,any country can be of first world .

  48. Jose Carlos Hernandez Hernandez 1B dice:

    The Chile needs is not dependent of any foreign power.
    underdeveloped countries are who dependent of anothers more developed to survive.
    Currently Latinoamerica needs to USA.
    So, until Chile didn’t become independent, it can’t grow up.

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