DEFENDER LA CIUDAD RECUPERÁNDOLA

Leyendo el libro “Apuntes sobre educación” (Buenos Aires, Losada, 2012), del pedagogo italiano Francesco Tonucci, recordé las sensaciones que me produjeron las populosas calles de la ciudad argentina de Córdoba, por lo menos en la zona que habité: que las ciudades en manos de los ciudadanos que las transitan, se ejercitan, toman café o mate en las aceras, son ciudades menos proclives a la violencia. No es que Córdoba sea un paraíso de la convivencia, pero es que ciudades en manos de ciudadanos no estarán en manos de los delincuentes o las organizaciones criminales, o serán menos vulnerables.

El libro de Tonucci es un repaso de la educación y la vida en las ciudades a partir de los puntos de vista de los niños; eso lo hace un objeto preciado. No es solo la sabiduría de un viejo maestro, sino las opiniones que recogió en ciudades italianas y argentinas conversando con niños, complementadas con las curiosas preguntas que el propio Tonucci nos asesta para ponernos de cabeza y cuestionarnos las creencias que damos por sentadas de una vez y para siempre.

Tonucci nos recuerda que hay dos maneras de trabajar por la seguridad de una ciudad: con los sistemas de defensa (policías, alarmas, sistemas de vigilancia, cámaras, armas, patrullas), o con la participación ciudadana. La primera es ineficiente e insuficiente. Los ejemplos abundan, pero quizá el mejor caso (peor por sus efectos) sean los Estados Unidos. Enormes gastos militares, ejércitos poderosos aparcados en todas las esquinas del mundo, policías modernas, entrenadas, ciudadanos armados… y los resultados son cruentos. Ejemplifica: en 2001 murieron tres mil personas en las Torres Gemelas, pero treinta mil por armas de fuego.

La segunda opción puede tener como bandera a los niños, advierte Tonucci. Para educar bien a los niños deben tener espacios amplios, seguros para jugar. Y necesitan más que sus confortables y seguras casas; requieren parques, avenidas por donde caminar sin preocupaciones. Precisan calles amigables, y no intimidatorias, que pueden adecuarse o prepararse con relativa facilidad: con bancas en las aceras para que los adultos y los viejos puedan sentarse, con espacios para niños y no el predominio abrumador de los autos.

Tonucci escribe: “La ciudad sufre la ausencia de ciudadanos en sus calles… Las calles están vacías, ocupadas exclusivamente por automóviles, y se vuelven peligrosas. Si los niños vuelven a recorrerlas (y con ellos los demás peatones) las calles recobrarán vida, el control social del vecindario, y serán más seguras. Es una dolorosa verdad: los alcaldes, los gobernantes todos están preocupados por la construcción de vialidades más rápidas para los automóviles, para ganar 5 o 10 minutos, y las urbanizaciones se proyectan en función de las máquinas, no de las personas, menos de los niños. Con frecuencia esas prioridades significan cortar árboles, suprimir espacios libres y pavimentar, suprimir la naturaleza para sustituirla por concreto.

Las ciudades serán más seguras no con más policías, armas, patrullas o cámaras, sino con las risas de los niños, con viejos, hombres y mujeres sentados en las aceras protegidas del sol, tomando un café, agua, una cerveza, jugando fútbol, conversando animados. ¿Será posible?

Comentarios

  1. arthur edwards dice:

    Me recuerdo cuando se aprendían muchas cosas buenas en la calle!

  2. 1J J1 Mejía Romero Fernando Rogelio dice:

    -Now on days, it is pretty hard to find kids playing in streets.
    – I didn’t someone wrote a book about education with children opinions.
    -Cops and guns are more like making people feel fear instead of making them feel safe.
    -This may sound rude, but 911 is kinda overrated.

  3. Juan Elías Castillo González dice:

    Maestro Juan Carlos, siempre interesantes y amenos sus comentarios, en este nos habla de un claro empoderamiento del ciudadano de Sabater para el que tenemos que educar.
    Saludos.

  4. Mario Rendón y Lozano dice:

    Será posible? Se pregunta apreciado Dr. Yáñez al final de su interesante artículo.
    Que debe ocurrir para que los ciudadanos vivamos las urbes tal como usted lo vio en Córdoba?
    Además por supuesto de la educación a nuestros niños, sería necesario extender esas ideas a los habitantes de las ciudades para hacerlas un clamor que sea advertido por las personas que tienen en sus manos el ejercicio admInistrativo y vean la necesidad de invertir en los espacios públicos y no en vías rápidas y armas para la policía. Pero será posible?.

  5. 1J Pablo Alejandro Ramírez urcino dice:

    *The kids need cities very safest to live
    *The president more worry for construction the street that the kids
    *into the cities there are more cars that people and is very dangerous
    *should have more quality school for the kids

  6. 1J 1J María Conchita Santana Ochoa dice:

    -In small towns people live more calm and confidently.
    -If the children go to back to play in the streets, they will feel more happy and they will not be more time in the computer.
    -In a few towns there are children playing and people talking out the their houses.
    -To stopping the delinquency is not necesary to have the best arms. Is necesary to have a good citizens.

  7. 1 E Ceballos Miranda Olga Isela dice:

    • Is too sad to see more cars than people in the streets.

    • Nowadays the majority of cities in the world have turned in cars, public transport and rules of traffic basically.

    • A change of culture and more conscience are necessary for a better city.

    • I agree with Yañez when he says that a cities in hands of his people don’t need weapons, violence or something like this.

  8. 1E Arzate Ayala Pedro Antonio dice:

    -The streets coul be dangerous for the kids that playing there.
    -The important is NOt have much weapones, if not that the childrens be happy.
    -In Mèxico care about more for the money, that for the wellness of people.
    -The country Needs more places to stroll.

  9. Manuel Antonio Robles Aguilar dice:

    -While reading “Apuntes Sobre Educacion” made him remember the streets of Cordoba.
    – There´s two ways of working wuith security, defense and cooperation with citizens.
    -Children need a wide área to be save and have fun.

  10. . dice:

    -Tonucci book is a review of education and city life from the point of view of children; that makes it a precious object.
    -Not that Córdoba is a haven of coexistence, but is that cities in the hands of citizens will not be in the hands of criminals or criminal organizations, or become less vulnerable.
    -To educate children well should be spacious, safe to play

  11. 1E alan guadalupe machuca silva dice:

    -Tonucci book is a review of education and city life from the point of view of children; that makes it a precious object.
    -Not that Córdoba is a haven of coexistence, but is that cities in the hands of citizens will not be in the hands of criminals or criminal organizations, or become less vulnerable.
    -To educate children well should be spacious, safe to play.
    -And they need more than their homes comfortable and safe; require parks, avenues where to walk carefree

  12. 1E - Alan Ulises Montes Rodríguez dice:

    1.- I agree that bringing more police officers won’t make a difference in security and in fact I think it would just make it even worse that the way it is right now.
    2.- I’d like to mention that public transport is also something that the government should take an eye on, because it is also insecure to transport on semi-broken vehicles.
    3.- I also think that children should live on a free environment so that they can grow just perfectly fine, many children right now live with fear and stress and that is causing them to not enjoy life the way it should be.
    4.- The government only thinks about themselves and not about the people, so they make these changes without realizing it is going to hurt them in some way, especially the children as stated by Yañez.

  13. 1E Orlando Arias Rodríguez dice:

    -I agree that society can change the security of the city.
    -People are conformists for that reason does not change society.
    -Society must interact more with each other.
    -Children are the next Citizens must be good people.

  14. – The cities in hands of citizens not will be in hands of the offenders or criminals and will be least vulnerables.

    – Tonucci remember what between more security more deaths for arms of fire.

    – For one best education best public space needed.

    – Tonucci said, what for one best security not its needed more arms or police , if not smiles of childrens.

  15. 1 j carlos enrique pizano saucedo dice:

    -Would you recommend that book?
    -Mexico would be better in the citizens hands?
    -More armed armies will make more armed people.
    -Did the author published more books?

  16. 1J Yabin Alain Cinta Montelongo dice:

    -In small towns people live more calm and confidently.
    -The president more worry for construction the street that the kids.
    -In Mèxico care about more for the money, that for the wellness of people.
    -This may sound rude, but 911 is kinda overrated.

  17. 1J Jesús Alejandro Chavarría dice:

    -Education is very important to improve cities security.
    -Is hard to find kids playing on the streets nowdays.
    -Cops and guns make people fear instead of make them feel secure.
    -Three thousand people died in 2001 because of the twin towers, but thirty thousand died because of guns.

  18. 1J Isaac Méndez Amaro dice:

    -Maybe you will write a new book whit this interesant topic.
    -The people live whit fear by the insecurity of the streets.
    -We need take awarenees about this situation.
    -Many polices is many insecurity.

  19. 1 E Mario Ruben Saucedo Alvarez dice:

    1- The kids needs secure spaces to play.
    2- The kids needs a very secure city.
    3- The governors prefer a city for cars than a city for people.
    4- The cities are more secures with people in the streets and not with police men and video cameras.

  20. 1 E Horacio Gerzain Avalos Aguayo dice:

    -Yañez did read at book “notes on education”.
    -This book talking on the education and life in the city.
    -The kids need more security for play on the city.
    -I agree, the city is dangerous for the kids because they will play on the streets and have will danger for them.

  21. 1E- Jazmin Moreno Hernandes dice:

    -Before the streets were as safe houses uqe
    -Breathed in harmony the streets, children playing
    -Before, all the street people talking aora or leave their homes
    -The roads more unsafe every time vialiadad

  22. 1J carlos misael ramirez mendoza dice:

    -The people live whit fear by the insecurity of the streets.
    -We need take awarenees about this situation.
    -Tonucci remember what between more security more deaths for arms of fire.
    -In a few towns there are children playing and people talking out the their houses.

  23. 1E Rocio Rodriguez Niebla dice:

    It seems that the main concern of the rector is unable to meet its obligations.
    It is sad that the eccentricities of the authorities leave in background academics.
    It should recognize and support people trying to put Mexico up to their academic achievements.
    It would be a difference if the president to fulfill his responsibilities.

  24. 1E Rocio Rodriguez Niebla dice:

    I agree that “cities in the hands of citizens” has a better situation compared to others.
    It’s great to be taken into account the views of children.
    When the defense system is deployed to maintain security, disastrous results.
    The best solution would be to invest in people and not on unnecessary buildings.

  25. 1k Ricardo Tomas Regalado Guerrero dice:

    >A child will never feel safe if adults say that the streets are unsafe.
    >The 9/11 was a tragedy but the number of deaths caused by firearms surpasses the 9/11.
    >Small towns are better for children and also for adults.
    >As always a good article yañez.

  26. 1J Jose Banda Espindola dice:

    He remember the streets of the city Argentina.
    Tonucci remember us that there are two ways of working.
    Tonucci says: The city suffers from the lack of people in the streets.
    Tonucci talks about the safety of children in the street.

  27. 1.- yañez travel very much.
    2.-the streets in our contry should be more safe.
    3.-the goberment doesn’t focus in the security of the contry.
    4.-the kids should have places where they can play.

  28. 1 J Edgar Ivan Alcantar Guerrero dice:

    -the world have crime because the people allows it.
    -lack of morality makes people be corrupted.
    -a people without corruption not need cops.
    – people learn from examples, if you put bad examples, they become ill.

  29. 1°K Avalos Galindo Marcos Antonio dice:

    1-Before the streets were safe.
    2-Yañez is a good writer of articles.
    3-Yañez writes very well what I particularly like.
    4-Good people do not need authorities lurking.

  30. 1K Leonel Arroyo Elizarraraz dice:

    It is sad that a child has to work to survive.
    In schools always says children are “the future of Mexico”, but the children have to work to attend aschool.
    In States like Chiapas and Oaxaca, children work from a very young age and do not attend classes.
    Poverty forces people to send their children to work.
    There are very few children who have a happy children’s day

  31. 1K Gustavo Abraham Urbina Torres dice:

    1.-The streets are safe in Córdoba.

    2.-The book “Notes on Education” is about the life of the cities from the point of view of children.

    3. Professor Yañez recommends the book.

    4.-The army and police are in some unnecessary way.

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