¿Educar o castigar?

Mientras estudiaba a Paulo Freire con la guía de su discípulo, Miguel Escobar Guerrero, colombiano, leí casi todo lo que había escrito el prolífico educador pernambucano. Entre todos aquellos libros y textos que obtuvimos con el apoyo de Miguel, uno de los que dejó más honda huella fue “Esa escuela llamada vida”, un libro “hablado”, como les llamaba Freire, escrito con el teólogo Frei Betto después de largas conversaciones. Muchos pasajes de aquel libro me conmovieron, al grado que algunos podía recitarlos de memoria. Entre esos pasajes recuerdo a Frei Betto afirmando que había sufrido más los cuatro años del colegio secundario que los años en la cárcel. Allí está el dicho, en la página 87. La expresión y lo que aquello evocaba me resultó dolorosamente sugerente.

Después, en distintos momentos aparecieron en mis reflexiones las asociaciones entre la escuela y la cárcel. Recuerdo, por ejemplo, una visita a la escuela de mi pueblo donde cursé primaria y secundaria. Con el paso de los años era distinta, no para bien, y entre los cambios más visibles estaban aquellos que se habían hecho para asemejarla a una prisión: los muros eran más inaccesibles que antes, con rejas más firmes y cercadas por doquier; los colores sin vida, y las aulas totalmente enrejadas, tanto que con dificultad se apreciaría qué pasaba dentro de los salones.

Me pregunté entonces, y así lo escribí: ¿por qué las escuelas tienen que ser feas? Pensé entonces, como ahora: si la escuela es un sitio donde pasan las horas de su vida unos seres tan importantes para cada familia y para la sociedad, por qué no podemos tener bellas escuelas, con un paisaje distinto, como una invitación a quedarse allí y no a sentirse preso.

Otras metáforas encontré en estos años, en donde aparece la asociación entre la escuela y la cárcel: la escuela como una prisión, el alumno como prisionero y el profesor como el carcelero; el espacio donde cuenta más la asistencia, el orden, la disciplina, la rigidez, la uniformidad, la paz forzada.

De nuevo ahora me encuentro con otra idea que revive estos recuerdos. En su visita a México, el prestigiado investigador norteamericano Martin Carnoy, profesor-investigador del Programa de Educación Internacional y Corporativa en la Universidad de Stanford, dentro de la cátedra Pablo Latapí en León, afirmó: “Un reo en el estado de California, cuesta lo mismo que un estudiante en Harvard”.

Lo tengo claro, muy claro: el problema de la seguridad, es decir la violencia en nuestro país no será resuelta con más militares, más policías; tampoco con helicópteros o marines en las calles mexicanas. La paz se construye en las mentes y en los corazones de los niños, de las niñas, de los jóvenes, de los ciudadanos, en el marco de un estado de derecho que establece los mecanismos de regulación adecuados. Eso no se consigue de la mañana a la noche, por supuesto, hay que trabajar y hay que hacerlo con pasión y responsabilidad, pero no hay alternativa para la buena educación.

En junio de 2010, el Centro de Estudios Sociales y de Opinión Pública de la Cámara de Diputados calculó, con base en cifras de la Secretaría de Seguridad Pública, que cada preso cuesta al país 130 pesos diarios, es decir, más de 47 mil pesos por año. Entonces, si educar a un joven en una universidad pública tiene un costo menor a mantenerlo en la cárcel, la cuestión está resuelta ética y económicamente. Falta escuchar y sentir las respuestas de los gobiernos: ¿educamos o castigamos?

 

 

Comentarios

  1. Daniela Moctezuma Garcia 1A dice:

    I think if school were pretty and nice, we will be happy to be there.

    I think that for educate, sometimes we must punish.

    Because the students need of a good punishment, for get our act together.

    I did not know that a prisoner had higher costs than a student in Mexico, is a good information for the government to take note and improve education.

  2. Luis Alonso Hernandez 1ro A dice:

    hello Good Night Mr yañez
    in my opinion is a great reflection, is very concrete affirmation, the private and public schools there are a beautiful places and not jails.
    I think so is a good idea the make yourself a this question educate or punish? because the education should be free a good for all.
    greetings and amazing note.

  3. jose adrian contreras ocaranza 1A dice:

    It is quite true that some schools in recent years become an as prison,unable to see what’s on the outside.

    schools should be nice,so that students are happy to go to school.

    There is no alternative but to fight for peace for children and youth to be satisfied to go to school.

    They should do something about it since we were young to study not to be punished,or imprisoned.

  4. Eduardo Jimenez 1° D dice:

    I am very impressed, I had never stopped to think about it, is quite right to say that some schools already seem “prisons”, plus I find it unfair allocate more resources to the prisoners that to young who really want to study.

  5. Manuel Salvador Saldaña Rojas 1°A dice:

    A school more pretty is a better place for learn.
    We are students and we know that the school don´t is jail but seems.
    A better relation tacher and student, help to a better learning.
    I like the words of Frei Betto maybe has rason.

  6. Saúl Alejandro Jiménez Mendoza 1°A dice:

    I like his relfection, of thinking that school can sometimes be like a prison.

    In my opinion, education is what prevents violence and crime.

    I think it would be better to educate people than having them arrested.

    In my opinion the solution to almost any problem is education.

  7. David Toledo Zúñiga 1B dice:

    In the present situation some school seem prison.
    I think that the appearance in the school is very important.
    Because it cause fear in some people.
    You have all reason, the problems in the present situation will finish when the people is educated.

  8. Jose Manuel Tapia Gonzalez 1A dice:

    Hello Dr. Yañez
    The you said of the school is very important.
    I agree whit you in those that say.
    We the students like a better school at teacher betters and that have like of going to school.

  9. JOSE EDUARDO CORTES CERNAS 1B dice:

    This text makes us think. Why the schools seem prisons?.
    Why schools are surrounded by bars?.
    Why there is a guard at every entrance asking you the credential of U d C?.
    I always wanted to find an answer to these questions.

  10. Miguel virgilio jimenez brena 1A dice:

    I think if the schools look more prettier and less like a prison we will be motivated to learn.
    To finish with the problems like violence, I think we have to offer a better education because some people are involved in this kind of problems because they didn’t find a job and dont have the studies for that.
    I can’t think why if schools are a place where we go to learn and spend some hours in there. It looks like a prison and not like a nice place.
    And as you say the future of our country are in our hands and we have to make it better.

  11. Carlos Alberto Santoyo Lopez 1A dice:

    First, it is sure that the schools should be more interesting.
    After, it is incredible to think that a prisioner cost same a student.
    The future of the country and world are in the hands of kids and youngs.
    It is necessary to know distinguish the education of the punishment.

  12. Victor Ivan Lopez Gonzalez 1A dice:

    I found this article very interesting.

    It is the truth of the schools.

    I liked that peace is built only in the minds and hearts of children, youth and citizens.

    You are absolutely right. VERY INTERESTING THIS ARTICLE.

  13. Luis Enrique Flores Ramirez 1°A dice:

    frei betto had suffered much in the school.

    frei betto left a mark with his written.

    the words that frei betto said, made me reflect.

    frei betto compared the school security as in prisionament.

  14. Erick Donaldo Arceo Magaña 1D dice:

    I think is better to educate than castigate.
    If is more cheap a student, the government should be make certain that everybody is studying.
    I remember that when i was children, i said that school was a jail because they always had us locked.
    Yes, you’re all rigth with violence in Mexico, we just finish with it, to educate.

  15. RAFAEL GARCIA MONTAÑO 1B dice:

    A read almost everything he wrote the prolific educator Pernambuco

    At different times aparesieron reflections between schools and prison.

    He found another idea that reminded of the past.

    He says the chamber diputadon calculated that each prisoner costs $ 130 per country.

  16. victor fidel garcia sanchez dice:

    One of the books that were supported by miguel that left more traces was “this school called life”.
    At various times he appeared related reflections between school and jail.
    School associated with the jail says the school is the prison, the prisoner student and teacher the jailer.

  17. Marco Antonio Torres Soriano 1B dice:

    Of course that the school must be pretty.
    But it is not, because the government invests heavily in teacher salaries.
    The government invests a very low percentage in materials or structures for schools.
    I agree with you, for the country to improve it has to start with education from children, not with more violence.

  18. Luis Manuel Cruz Ortiz dice:

    Students should be free to go to school.
    The structure of a school has nothing to do are freedom, is student safety.
    If the school seems maybe jail is by poor design.
    It is right that it should be free to get as much out of school.

  19. Amayelli Itzel Silva Contreras 1D dice:

    Many times students feel prisoners of extreme rules imposed on us in school.

    You need a good work environment for work or learning are of advantage.

    Many times the jail and schools are very similar because in both there is much uncertainty as it may suffer from bullying.

    Universities are not like prisons but it is sometimes resemble the atmosphere that prevails there sometimes.

  20. Edwin Preciado dice:

    I agree with you.
    I think the school should be enjoyable for everyone.
    For students studying gladly go.
    Very interesting your article

  21. Punishment it’s necessary to learn the lesson of life. I think if the studdents be more conscious the society could be more “fair”. It’s too invertion in somebody who isn’t benefit education. On the contrary, the only way it’s the school.

  22. Antonio Torres Figueroa dice:

    The solution is to educate younger.

    Prison is a school for delinquents.

    Combat violence educacion.

    Governments have the solution

  23. Karen Stephanie Fletes Tejeda dice:

    I also think the police won’t stop all this violence.
    Schools should be nice pretty spaces for the students because that’s where we spend a lot of our time learning.
    It’s very interesting to know how much an inmate costs each year.
    I believe that by investing the money in education, we will improve and make this a better country without a doubt.

  24. Josè Eduardo Aguilar Aguiano 1B dice:

    I like your publication.
    The school should not be some kind of child.
    The school needs to be more interesting for the students.
    The school should not be seen like some kind of jail.

  25. Jesus Roberto Trejo Quiroz 1B dice:

    It would be good that schools should change their appearance for the student to have more desire to stay a long time in school.
    Education is essential for promoting the values​​.
    With better education would decrease crime.
    No doubt we must educate first before punishing.

  26. kevin roberto gomez peralta 1 "D" dice:

    For better education is better to have a place that makes you feel good that one that will depressed.

    Teachers only care that the student is silent.

    I think the best is to educate, not punish.

    But nothing will change if teachers do not improve.

  27. Oscar Arturo Gonzalez Ramirez 1°B dice:

    When you educate a girl in a public university costs less to keep him in jail.

    When work has to be done with passion and responsibility.

    The violence in this country will be difficult to end it.

    If educion was better there would be less violence.

  28. Roberto Banda Flores 1A dice:

    Lol, I could care less the place or where I sit while I have minimum very good teachers and Internet.

    I not understand, How “the Presidents” say that can solve the problem of education, but they not studied nothing of education,say that can solve the problem of comunication and they not studied nothing of comunication.

    But they know order and manipulate.

    That teach in law school?

  29. Hector Jose Manzo Briceño 1D dice:

    There are things to do and not do.
    Sometimes good but always punish moderate.
    But to educate must be strict rules to not get the punishment.
    Education is the best in the world.

  30. Felipe Lao Alcantar 1B dice:

    In my first years in the school, i always think “the school is horrible”.
    But now that I am in the university, the things are changing.
    I apreciate more my education.
    And I’ll keep thinking that.

  31. Jever Amezcua Garcia 1D dice:

    Students sometimes have guilt that classrooms are damaged.

    The problem in Mexico is that corruption costs us a lot to every citizen.

    Poverty is also a factor if you study or not.

    A good idea would be cuts in civil servants’ salaries and invest in public education.

  32. The school at this time it looks like a jail, that’s what a student thinks.
    In Mexico must invest more in education, so we would have less people in jail.
    I think a school should not be ugly, must adapt to the student.
    The school is to prepare students, not to make you feel trapped.

  33. Miguel Arias Sandoval 1A dice:

    For me the School’s are the better thing, not must be a jail.
    however the people and young so thing.
    The Mexican student’s say whatever!, but verily whatever?
    The important people say “the school is the better” is True!!!

  34. Miguel Arias Sandoval 1A dice:

    For me the School’s are the better thing, not must be a jail.
    however the people and young so thing.
    The Mexican student’s say whatever!, but verily whatever?
    The important people say “the school is the better” is True!!!

  35. Miguel Arias Sandoval 1A dice:

    For me the School’s are the better thing, not must be a jail.
    however the people and young so thing.
    The Mexican student’s say whatever!, but verily whatever?
    The important people say “the school is the better” is True!!!

  36. Keila Abigail Valdéz Pérez 1D dice:

    The school is a lot like prison.
    He has forgotten the mission of schools.
    Because of poor education there young in the jail.
    Investing in a better education can save many young of delinquency.

  37. Fabian Garcia 1D dice:

    Education should be first of all.
    We must save the children without possibilities.
    Mexico has much educational potential, undermined by corruption.
    No punishment should be taken as a sanction for a child.

  38. edgar eduardo zepeda orozco dice:

    I think is better to educate than castigate.
    Investing in a better education can save many young of delinquency.
    Frei betto left a mark with his written.

  39. Ignacio Ramirez 1A dice:

    Schools are just good people sometimes do not understand its importance.
    I think we should teachers with better dynamics to encourage learner’s best.
    I think we can improve to have better and more interesting classes.
    we learn to improve our education and to be researchers.

  40. José Luis Garza Gallegos dice:

    I think all those problems starts in homes.
    It is true, we need to guide our kids, but now, adults are doing bad things and is necesary to fix it.
    I feel little sad when a see schools, it is true, their color are sad.
    A lot of times the clothes or the dicipline was more important than our learning. I don’t like that.

  41. Francisco Javier Gutierrez Mondragon 1o D dice:

    A school more pretty is a better place for learn.

    In my opinion, education is what prevents violence and crime.

    I like the words of Frei Betto maybe has rason.

    The school needs to be more interesting for the students.

  42. I like your comment.
    But they know order and manipulate.
    But it is not, because the government invests heavily in teacher salaries.
    The future of the country and world are in the hands of kids and youngs.

  43. Education its not correct for says that is bad.
    I think about the education for much time.. Its horrible! Fr every teacher that say the thigs difficult than one student can be compredly

  44. Oscar Arturo Gonzalez Ramirez 1°B dice:

    In a school in a pleasant atmosphere is better for learning.

    If you build peace in the minds and hearts of children.

    For a good education must be strict.

    Some schools like prisons and that is not good for a good education.

  45. Christian D. Rentería García 1.-D dice:

    Most of the kids think that they are in jail when they are studying.
    If you keep the kids in a peacefull place, they are going to stay in calm.
    Most of the teachers makes you feel like if you were in a prision.
    Most of the teachers try to manipulate us.

  46. Edsel Barbosa Gonzalez 1D dice:

    There is much here in Mexico for
    that education is modified,
    but as we acoplaremos
    to what we have.

  47. Jose Ivan Martinez Najera dice:

    I think if school were pretty and nice, we will be happy to be there.
    I think that for educate, sometimes we must punish.
    Because the students need of a good punishment, for get our act together.
    I did not know that a prisoner had higher costs than a student in Mexico, is a good information for the government to take note and improve education.

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