Elogio de la estupidez

Hace varias semanas quería escribir este artículo, pero no encontraba la oportunidad ni el clima para redactarlo. Hoy los tengoEl propósito es simple. Quiero compartir con ustedes algunas ideas de un breve libro que conseguí en una vieja librería de la Ciudad de México. Se llama “Allegro ma non troppo”, escrito por Carlo M. Cipolla, profesor e historiador en universidades europeas y norteamericanas. La obra, publicada inicialmente en Italia a finales de los ochenta, fue traducida al español e impresa en 1991 por la estupenda Editorial Crítica, con sede en Barcelona.

De la obra conviene ofrecer algunas referencias que tomo de la solapa: los dos ensayos que componen el libro fueron escritos en inglés no para ser publicados ni vendidos, sino para compartir a los amigos. El gusto que provocaron originó que se reprodujeran masivamente en fotocopias e incluso manuscritos. Cipolla no tuvo más remedio que publicarlo; en dos semanas se agotó la edición inicial, y 50 mil ejemplares en pocos meses.

 

El primero de los ensayos se titula “El papel de las especias (y de la pimienta en particular) en el desarrollo económico de la Edad Media”. El segundo, al que aludiré, “Las leyes fundamentales de la estupidez humana”; contenido excepcional, pero desacertado el nombre, pues no creo que se pueda calificar como estupidez los comportamientos animales o de otras especies, por tanto, es solo atribuible a los humanos.  

 

El ensayo sobre la estupidez es un espléndido ejercicio humorístico: “El término humorismo –dice Cipolla- deriva del término humor y se refiere a una sutil y feliz disposición mental sólidamente basada en un fundamento de equilibrio psicológico y de bienestar fisiológico.” En otras palabras, “es, claramente, la capacidad inteligente y sutil de poner de relieve y destacar el aspecto cómico de la realidad. Pero es también mucho más que eso. En primer lugar, tal como escribieron Devoto y Oli, el humorismo no debe suponer una posición hostil, sino más bien una profunda y a menudo indulgente simpatía humana”.

 

Enfatizo: humorístico y no irónico. La diferencia es sutil en la escritura pero radicalmente distinta en actitud: el irónico se ríe de los demás; el humorístico se ríe con los demás. Este es un texto humorístico sobre la estupidez: “una de las más poderosas y oscuras fuerzas que impiden el crecimiento del bienestar y de la felicidad humana”.

 

Cinco son las leyes fundamentales de la estupidez, a saber:

 

1)

“Siempre e inevitablemente cada uno de nosotros subestima el número de individuos estúpidos que circulan por el mundo”. Quizá la mexicana expresión “un chingo” pueda ayudar, pero siempre será ambiguo el cálculo. Ciertamente, dice Cipolla, el número de personas estúpidas no es infinito, porque es finito el número de personas vivas.

2)

La estupidez es una prerrogativa indiscriminada de todos los individuos y de todos los grupos humanos, que se distribuye uniformemente, por tanto, la probabilidad de ser estúpido es independiente de cualquier otra característica de la persona. En otras palabras, y eso favorece la equidad, no hay más mujeres estúpidas (como se creyó durante largos periodos de la historia), ni tampoco se es más estúpido por nacer en el mundo subdesarrollado (como algunas ideologías y algunos locos quisieron hacer creer), ni por ser de un color de piel o hablar una lengua distinta al inglés, alemán, francés o japonés (como suponen algunos todavía).

3)

La tercera ley presupone que todos los seres humanos caben en una de cuatro categorías: incautos, inteligentes, malvados y estúpidos. La definición de estúpido es simple: una persona que causa daño a otra persona o grupo, sin obtener provecho para sí, o incluso obteniéndolo. Se ejemplifica aun mejor: “Nadie sabe, entiende o puede explicar por qué esta absurda criatura hace lo que hace. En realidad, no existe explicación –o mejor dicho- sólo hay una explicación: la persona en cuestión es estúpido”.

4)

“Las personas no estúpidas subestiman siempre el potencial nocivo de la personas estúpidas. Los no estúpidos olvidan con frecuencia que en cualquier momento, lugar y circunstancia, tratar o asociarse con estúpidos se traduce infaliblemente en un costosísimo error.

5)

La quinta es la más conocida de las leyes: el estúpido es la persona más peligrosa que existe, incluso, más que el malvado.

 

Como esta colaboración ya se hizo inusualmente larga, dejo a cada quien las conclusiones, pues supongo, sin duda, que solo los inteligentes me leen.


Comentarios

  1. Salvador Silva dice:

    Genial. Y muy ilustrativo, casi casi didáctico.
    Ahora bien:
    1.- si los estúpidos son cuantiosísimos.
    2.- si se desarrollan (y hasta florecen) prácticamente en cualquier medio,
    3.- si suelen ser subestimados (¿no es paradójico que un estúpido sea subestimado? o al menos en la expresión contraria: un estúpido debe ser reconocido en su justa medida, sin que se le menosprecie, ellopor el potencial daño que puede causar)
    4.-Y si el estúpido es la persona más peligrosa que existe…
    ¿Qué tan viable sería crear un sistema nacional de pevención contra estúpidos?.

    En verdad tu texto me hizo el día.

  2. Eustolio Magaña Silva dice:

    Excelente articulo mi estimado Juan Carlos, hasta que punto podremos saber si alguno de nosotros no ha cometido una o muchas estupideces a favor o en contra de otros, todos estamos expuestos a una cosa o a la otra. Saludos afectuosos.

  3. Eustolio Magaña Silva dice:

    Comparto tu articulo en facebook

  4. Carolina Anaya dice:

    saber reconocerla nos puede librar de tantas cosas y batallas que no son necesarias, me quedo con…

    la estupidez: “una de las más poderosas y oscuras fuerzas que impiden el crecimiento del bienestar y de la felicidad humana”.

  5. This is true, persons are so stupid when someone says that himself its more intelligent than the others..
    And we don’t have more or a little knowled about the education, politic or other things most important in the world.
    Humans are so intelligents but believe than one person is more or more little than himself is horrible..
    Haha..

  6. Alejandro Cruz dice:

    La estupidez no se crea ni se destruye, solo se transforma.

  7. Juan Pablo López dice:

    Faltaria agregar que la estupidez se convierte en una “condición normal” de una persona cuando se hace constumbre. Porque, de alguna manera, todos hemos hecho algo que a los ojos de los demás parece estúpido. Cuestion de sentido común, tal vez.

  8. Saralou dice:

    Es un placer y de gran aprendizaje, leerte, un abrazo

  9. Daniela Moctezuma Garcia 1A dice:

    People are not never so close to the stupidity as when creating wise.

    The stupidity is talent for the equivocation.

    The stupid, show intelligence when they realize their stupidity.

    Those who do not accept it are just stupid and worse: pathetic.

  10. Consuelo Cardenas dice:

    …me gusto mucho el articulo. Gracias por compartir… y estoy de acuerdo en que la estupidez es una “fuerza poderosa y obscura” que puede transformar tu vida, ya sea que hagas algo estupido o seas victima de algun estupido…

  11. Laura García dice:

    Desde que avisaste que ibas a publicar este artículo, me llamó la atención el título, por lo que estuve a la espera del mismo. Me quedó con las siguientes reflexiones:
    1. Muy a menudo nos encontramos con la ironía de gente cercana que denota violencia contenida; por otra parte, que del equilibrio entre salud física y salud psicológica depende el buen humor.
    2. La gran cantidad de riesgo que hay de toparnos con este tipo de gente, subestimarla, asociarnos y finalmente meter la pata hasta el fondo por no percatarnos de lo peligrosos que son.
    3. Se me vinieron a la mente algunos nombres de gente pública.
    Saludos y gracias por compartir, es un gusto encontrar estos artículos en el FB.

  12. Saúl Alejandro Jiménez Mendoza 1°A dice:

    I really liked the description of Devoto and Oli about humor.

    I find very interesting the five fundamental laws of stupidity.

    It’s true, the stupid is the most dangerous person.

    This article is very interesting, I like everything you writes in this blog.

  13. Jose Manuel Tapia Gonzalez 1A dice:

    Doctor, very good puclication.
    I cosider that the stupid is a problem that present much persons and more in Mexico.
    Every day the people stupid play its tricks this we see in the delinquency.
    The persons estupid are as a virus that it spreads, causing more stupidity in the people.

  14. David Toledo Zúñiga 1B dice:

    The two essays are interesting but I think that the second essay is more interesting and important.
    I agree with you, the stupidity is the most powerful and dark forces that prevent the growth of welfare and happiness human.
    I think that the fifth law is the most important and all people should know it.
    Thank Doctor for share this ideas.

  15. Luis Enrique Flores Ramirez 1°A dice:

    I was struck, the comment of Salvador is much very good the question. 🙂

    Are interesting, the five laws that is mentioned.

    I agree to with point five.

    Very good arguments, of stupid the human.

  16. jose adrian contreras ocaranza 1A dice:

    I’m glad you liked the book to the public.

    The essay on stupidity,as you say is an aspect of reality.

    Personally I find this book very good.

    This reading is very interesting and if I could have the book gave me the time to read it.

  17. Miguel Arias Sandoval 1A dice:

    Stupidity not something you’re born.

    Stupidity is something that people develop.

    Stupidity not is something that can measure.

    And finally stupidity is a phenomenon very seen by people, but something that can’t avoid.

  18. Gabriela Suárez dice:

    ¡Qué honor! Pero no seas tan confiado, acuérdate de la primera de las leyes que mencionas, por mero azar…

  19. Victor Ivan Lopez Gonzalez 1A dice:

    This book says that I find interesting.

    I was impressed that they did that of the laws of human stupidity.

    It interesting what is said.

    I’d like to read this book to know more about it

  20. Eduardo Jimenez 1D dice:

    I think that humans are intelligent by nature, but some people yes take advantage of this “gift” and there are those who have wasted, everyone know making with this”gift”.
    Congratulations for this article, get the book and read it.

  21. Hi MR Yañez
    I think so is wonderful a book, I liked those assays
    and my opinon about the stupidity test is a good reflection and want share my acceptance.

    I belive what is a better be a bad person a be a stupid person.

    greetings.

  22. Marco Antonio Torres Soriano 1B dice:

    Sincerely, I did not like reading.
    But now I know it’s very important.
    I’ve never read that book.
    But I find interesting, and now I want read this book.

  23. José Luis Garza Gallegos dice:

    Hahaha. This text is making me to remember some phrases of Facundo Cabral, about kinds of stupids… HAHAHA

    All we are potential stupids, and some times we are just a practicaly stupids.

    Errors remember us that we are humans, mortals, and stupids.

    Concient stupidness is too near of evil, I think.

  24. miguel virgilio jimenez brena 1A dice:

    Always there is someone who is stupid.
    But I think its true the stupid is very dangerous because the can be ignorants.
    I’ll read that book it seems interesting.
    And I think be stupid is something that your learn with the years not something what you born with.

  25. Luis Manuel Cruz Ortiz 1 A dice:

    Maybe stupidity and can be considered a disease.
    There are many people stupid freakin, but there are many intelligent people.
    Very important to go is to take measures so that the new generations do not fall into the stupidity.
    Also define either we call stupid.

  26. RAFAEL GARCIA MONTAÑO dice:

    That I have wanted to write an article but could not find the time to do so.

    Will share some of the ideas found in a book found in a library in Mexico City.

    He says the test is an exercise in stupidity humorous.

    The humor deve not be a hostile but deve posision be more profound human sympathy.

  27. Carlos Alberto Santoyo Lopez 1A dice:

    I like the delineation of stupid.
    Is true, that to be stupid is bad but worse is not know.
    The stupidity no depend of money, color of skin or others specifications.
    Everybody have somewhat of stupid.

  28. victor fidel garcia sanchez dice:

    He says the work was published in Italy in the early eighties.
    The essays that make up this book were written in English not to be published or sold.
    The work was translated into Spanish in 1991 in Barcelona.
    I like five different fundamental laws of stupidity.

  29. José Eduardo Aguilar Anguiano 1°B dice:

    Apparently, Cipolla’s book was very good to vernderse so fast.

    It’s a bit strong the title of the second essay, isn’t it?

    The laws of stupidity are very good and fun.

    The fifth law is fun but i agree with that.

  30. Antonio Torres Figueroa dice:

    Should share the complete book.

    would be interesting to read.

    Some societies have more than o thers.

    I think that the high academic level decreases the average of these.

  31. Felipe Lao-kiun Alcantar Lam 1B dice:

    I don’t think that the people is stupid.
    I think people is ignorant.
    Maybe someday the ignorance will disappear.
    Not today, not tomorrow but someday.

  32. Erick Donaldo Arceo Magaña 1D dice:

    The funny thing is, the stupid people says that they aren’t.
    I don’t have read the book, but i will do it, it looks interesting.
    These laws are just right about stupidity.
    Your articule are very good.

  33. Oscar Arturo Gonzalez Ramirez 1°B dice:

    We are all prone to foolishness.

    The stupid not often forget that at any time, place and circumstance, treat or associate with stupid unfailingly results in a costly mistake.

    No stupid simpre is the most dangerous person there.

    People always underestimate stupid not harmful potential of stupid people.

  34. In life there will always be stupid people.
    The solution is to learn to deal with them, because as you say, they are everywhere.
    I think a person who does harm to another person, is very stupid.
    Although I think the human stupidity we can reach everyone.

  35. Edwin Preciado dice:

    That good comments.
    The most dangerous person stupid even the wicked
    that’s true.
    People always underestimate stupid not harmful potential of stupid people.
    Always and inevitably each of us underestimates the number of stupid individuals in circulation around the world. ”

    These are the comments that I liked the text

  36. Jever Amezcua Garcia 1D dice:

    Very good the 5 laws.

    And it’s true sometimes stupid is more dangerous than the evil.

    It has to be careful with someone stupid.

    Must not allow stupidity to be one step ahead of the intelligence.

  37. sergio rodrigo ceceña lares 1b dice:

    This one I articulate in the particular thing me great taste. We believe always in being more clever that the other, whereas the oyher think be more clever that we, then here it fits mention the Mexican’s typical phrase ” YO SOY MAS CABRON QUE TODOS LOS DEMAS”, simply it is not that you are more clever or more alone idiot that you have more experience that the other.

  38. Stupids are everywhere. You have to be careful. Nobody know what’s the limit of his conscience or ignorance. It’s annother unvierse.

  39. Ignacio Ramirez 1A dice:

    Interesting is that the book
    Many people trumps ignorance
    Much is about the lack of culture and people do stupid
    Nice article Dr.

  40. Amayelli Itzel Silva Contreras 1ºD dice:

    The text is very interesting.

    It’s true what they say to the ironic and humorous.

    The laws of stupidity are very interesting.

    The law that I liked was the fifth, so it is mentioned.

  41. Jesus Roberto Trejo Quiroz 1B dice:

    Sometimes the human stupidity is infinite.
    Is right that the stupid guy are worse than the bad guy.
    This book looks very good.
    I would like to read this book someday.

  42. Roberto Banda Flores 1A dice:

    There of all in of world.

    If there a person is not stupid but forget that are with people stupid all the time, that’s stupid. or not?

    The rest I am agree.

    “Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity; and I’m not sure about the the universe” Albert.

  43. Manuel Salvador Saldaña Rojas 1°A dice:

    Jeje I like the themes.
    These law can do that the people think more.
    I like the law number three.
    Maybe we don’t know what´s do.

  44. Keila Abigail Valdéz Pérez 1D dice:

    You are right, I love your article.
    Never know what wait of a stupid.
    There lies is the danger.
    We forget what stupid persons are dangerous.

  45. Miriam Hazel M dice:

    Considero que existe una trilogía que causa miedo y esta es aparte de la estupidez, la maldad y la ignorancia. Siempre he considerado a esta última, la hermana mayor de las dos anteriores.

  46. JOSE EDUARDO CORTES CERNAS 1B dice:

    The text is very interesting and explanatory.
    Very interesting is the difference between ironic and humorous.
    I like the word humorous, because it means laughing with each other instead of making fun of others.
    In conclusion stupid people aren’t like everybody see them.

  47. kevin roberto gomez peralta 1 "D" dice:

    People are stupid for not studying
    Yet many prefer to be stupid.
    and many fall within these categories by a minimal lack of knowledge but not for being stupid.
    I wonder why people like to put Categories to a people

  48. Christian D. Rentería García 1.-D dice:

    If you dont study you are going to be ignorant.
    If we dont know how to face ignorant people we are going to fail.
    The world have faith in us, and we need to change this.
    If you want to succed you need to have dreams.

  49. Edsel Barbosa Gonzalez 1D dice:

    I think everyone (at least once)
    have resorted to any statute
    fundamental human stupidity
    without realizing it, sometimes realizing
    but queriendolas accept.

  50. Hector Jose Manzo Briceño 1D dice:

    I will have to buy this book.
    To be old and wise, you have to be young and stupid.
    I like the delineation of stupid.
    Very good arguments i agree with points.

  51. 2B Celso Alejandro Maldonado Mendoza dice:

    This article is funny but a hundred percent true. I imagine that the book should be a masterpiece. To tell the truth the world is full of stupid and better understand their behavior. Eventhough I liked the article I disagree with your definition of stupid, but I have as good either define it for me would be “stupid: a stupid person.” Very good article.

  52. 2B Celso Alejandro Maldonado Mendoza dice:

    This article is funny but a hundred percent true. I imagine that the book should be a masterpiece.
    To tell the truth the world is full of stupid and better understand their behavior.
    Eventhough I liked the article I disagree with your definition of stupid.
    but I have as good either define it for me would be “stupid: a stupid person.” Very good article.

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