Los rectores y la gobernabilidad universitaria

Hace un par de años publiqué la mayor parte de los párrafos de esta colaboración. No suelo hacerlo, pero esta vez lo juzgo pertinente. La intención es ofrecer un sucinto panorama de uno de los principales filones del tema en cuestión.

Adrián Acosta en su libro “Príncipes, burócratas y gerentes. El gobierno de las universidades públicas en México”, publicado por la Anuies en 2009, afirma que entre 1940 y 1990 en México hubo tres grandes tipos de gobiernos universitarios, definidos a partir de quién y cómo se decide el nombramiento de su rector.

El primer tipo, denominado “gobierno unicéfalo”, es aquel en que el consejo universitario, su máxima autoridad, elige al rector a través de dos vías: elección directa de toda la comunidad, o indirecta, mediante el voto ponderado de los miembros del consejo universitario. En el segundo, “gobierno bicéfalo”, coexisten una junta o consejo de gobierno y el consejo universitario, y el primero tiene la facultad de nombrar al rector y a los directores de escuelas, con el apoyo de distintos mecanismos de consulta a la comunidad. En el tercero, el gobernador del Estado designa al rector, con base en una propuesta del consejo universitario o de la consulta por su parte.

Las diferencias entre los tres son notorias. La elección del rector, dice Acosta, es “la llave maestra” de los sistemas de gobierno universitario. A la primera corresponde una fórmula de gobernabilidad “político/burocrática”, a la segunda, “colegiada/burocrática”, y la tercera es “política”.

Como cabría esperar, la situación en las universidades no ha sido ajena al devenir político del país y también han evolucionado hacia mecanismos de gobernabilidad más plurales y abiertos. En los años ochenta la mayor parte de los gobiernos universitarios funcionaban con estructuras basadas en el predominio de los consejos. Por su parte, los gobiernos bicéfalos tenían entonces poca presencia, mientras que siete universidades públicas tenían como rector a quien designaba el gobernador de la entidad o el gobierno federal (el Instituto Politécnico Nacional, como hasta ahora).

En los años noventa cambió el panorama: las formas de gobierno y de gobernabilidad pasaron de esquemas unicéfalos a bicéfalos. Así, al empezar la década actual 22 universidades tenían gobiernos unicéfalos, 14 bicéfalos y uno subordinado (IPN). Para 2007, del mismo universo fueron ya 16 las que conjugaban consejos universitarios y juntas de gobierno.

Los anteriores son los hechos. Las interpretaciones pueden variar. Hay conclusiones más o menos inobjetables y tendencias claras: la desaparición de los gobernadores como actores en la elección del rector, o la mayor presencia de actores sociales externos a las universidades, que restan conflictividad y despolitizan la elección de autoridades, pero que también son apoyos y legitimación para los rectores.

En su análisis específico de cinco universidades mexicanas, Adrián Acosta concluye con lo que parece una obviedad, pero resulta crucial en el destino de las instituciones educativas: “un mejor gobierno universitario (un buen gobierno institucional) facilita un mejor desempeño institucional. Es decir, en la medida en que se configura un gobierno eficaz con alta legitimidad de origen o de desempeño, será posible no solamente asegurar la estabilidad de las universidades (el bien mayor en términos de muchos actores universitarios y de los gobiernos local y nacional), sino también permitir un mejor rendimiento de los procesos y resultados académicos, administrativos y financieros de las universidades”.

La elección de rector no debe interpretarse como un triunfo individual o de grupo. Su valor es más trascendente: es la clave para la gobernabilidad universitaria y para el desempeño institucional responsable en y frente a la sociedad. En palabras llanas: un buen rector no garantiza el funcionamiento óptimo de la universidad, pero un mal rector lo complica, incluso puede lastimar pasado, presente y condenar el futuro inmediato.

Comentarios

  1. Balvanero dice:

    Interesante y pertinente.

    Interesante por el devenir estructural en las dirección -de rumbo y autoridad- de las universidades públicas en el país.

    Pertinente por la coyuntura de nuestra universidad, que tanto interés ha despertado al interior y exterior de la misma y que se ha visto intensificado en éstos días.

  2. Juan Carlos, los tres sistemas referidos de elección de rectores son los que legalmente existen, faltaría incluir la designación del rector en funciones (usos y costumbres), que puede darse y se ha dado y otra posible, por consenso de cúpulas, una especie de junta de “gobierno informal”.

  3. joaqun reymundo silva manzo 1-D dice:

    I think about this is that principals have the highest position within the universities and are the heads that guide these institutions of education should therefore choose the best universities to function well

    These topics make me very important for both teachers and students congratulations

    as soon as economic education in Mexico is expensive and there are more people who drop out for lack of money

    and I hope my comments are read and again congratulations for these very important issues are very interesting to follow a good example

  4. jose adrian contreras ocaranza 1A dice:

    I feel very good that comments on the subject of recoteres.

    I think if the election of the rector is fundamental, choose either to deve aiga no complications later.

    Together with this, a good president, also allows for best performance and academic results.

  5. Saúl Alejandro Jiménez Mendoza 1°A dice:

    I like how he explains the way the rector elections were made.

    I find it interesting as how the rector is currently elected, I did not know.

    I think we need a good rector to keep the university as it is now or better.

    In my opinion the best way to elect the president is with the university council.

  6. Carlos Santoyo dice:

    The Government not have that intervene in the election university.
    The chancellor should be choice through students.
    No one of the three models is good.
    I like phrase “A good chancellor ensure a good operation but a bad chancellor its complicate”.

  7. Ángel Crisán Ochoa Gaitán 1A dice:

    Is important to know how the rector is elected knowing that we can warn if there is something wrong in the election.

    We can see in this text how the way to elect a rector was changing.

    Knowing that we have to do the best choice in the election of the rector.

    We have to choose right because the election of the rector will affect or benefit to us.

  8. Daniela Moctezuma Garcia 1A dice:

    In really I did not know as choose a principal, and less that exist different ways to do it.

    I find it quite interesting, and now i would like know it as choose to the principal of university Colima.

    I think that choose a good principal, can bring good results or minimum will not bring problems.

    But the base of this it, is that is clean and crystalline.

  9. Arthur Edwards dice:

    I would like to see a TRULY democratic and TRASPARENT process. I would like to see, analyze and debate actual proposals by an informed governing body. I would like actual candidates that have done research, published and proven to be ACADEMICIANS of excellence. Since I know these conditions will not be met in my lifetime, I have to accept what is imposed….as I have done all of my university career.

  10. Manuel Salvador Saldaña Rojas 1°A dice:

    The election of rector is very important.
    For to make that university take a good road.
    The policy of the university has a relation important for choose rector.
    If the rector do good a job the university can improve.

  11. Miguel virgilio jimenez brena 1A dice:

    The people need to know this information, and learn how is elected the rector.
    I think the rector have to be elected by the university council.
    The rector have to dedicate with his job.
    And the goverment and the universities are separate organizations thats why the goverment don’t have to Choose who is going to be the rector.

  12. Oscar Arturo Gonzalez Ramirez dice:

    A couple of years ago I published most of the paragraphs of this collaboration.
    The intention is to offer a brief review of one of the main veins of the subject matter.
    The governance of public universities in Mexico, “published by the ANUIES in 2009, says that between 1940 and 1990 in Mexico.
    There were three major types of college government.

  13. Jose Manuel Tapia Gonzalez 1A dice:

    The choose at the rector is a point very much important because, is the that goverment of the community Universitary.
    But, the election must be democratic.
    I think the better election serious for the community universitary.
    The teachers also must of participate in this election of rector.

  14. Victor Ivan Lopez Gonzalez 1A dice:

    The Rector is a very important part of the university. Each university should have a good president to conduct it. I think there should be no evil guiding all universities are very good at all. A good guiding ara a very good college.

  15. Victor Ivan Lopez Gonzalez 1A dice:

    The Rector is a very important part of the university.

    Each university should have a good president to conduct it.

    I think there should be no evil guiding all universities are very good at all.

    A good guiding ara a very good college.

  16. Roberto Banda Flores dice:

    A Conservative government to a people long delayed.

    Thanks for teaching me the importance of the rector.

    How would an organized society without politics?

    Congratulations to the rector to fulfill his dream.

  17. Luis Enrique Flores Ramirez dice:

    Is of great helpful to what previously mentioned to know how to choose the rector

    Thanks to the above we can have a better decision

    I like how they mentioned the ways in which the rector is elected

    With the information we have,help us a good decision and not fail when elect, we can also avoid any fraud

  18. edgar eduardo zepeda orozco 1"D" dice:

    I feel very good that comments on the subject of recoteres.
    The Government not have that intervene in the election university.
    We can see in this text how the way to elect a rector was changing.

    edgar eduardo zepeda orozco 1″D”

  19. It is simple..
    For me, every single rector/president/teacher with benefits at school or autoritaries of university.. Never be completely honest with the students.
    Because the students think in others matters of help to other people and they(rector/presidents)only search for famous, money and others privilegies than no one donimion in other works, the students could be the most important law in every thing that should pass at place (school, university)because we stay and study every day or stay at a place but.. stay here and never an neever says oh, your voices says ¡we are the universe in this school! only, we cant comment because we scud to other way or street

  20. Eduardo Jimenez 1° D dice:

    I think the whole election of rectors is essential and must be disclosed to all who make up the university.

    The directors should be elected by their proposals and responsibly.

    I did not know as elegy to a rector, and thanks to the text I could understand.

    I think the government does wrong to intervene in the election of the rector.

  21. Jose Ivan Martinez Najera 1 D dice:

    In my opinion the rector should be chosen by each student.
    The university council should only propose a selection process.
    But here in mexico that is impossible.
    That is the only democracy.

  22. David Toledo Zúñiga 1B dice:

    I think that the better choice is where we all participate.
    Because the rector represent us in the University.
    The rector is the authority maximum in the Community Universitary.
    I would like participate in elections like that.

  23. Felipe Lao-kiun Alcantar Lam dice:

    I think they just want to be rectors for the money.
    Each time, Mexico falling down deeper.
    Why there isnt’t good people?
    I’m making me this question for so long.

  24. JOSE EDUARDO CORTES CERNAS 1B dice:

    It is important to know how to choose the rector of the university.
    I think the rector should be selected by all students.
    The phrase I liked was “a good rector does not guarantee the optimal functioning of the university, but it complicates a bad rector”.
    The preceding sentence is true because a good rector can change things.

  25. Jever Amezcua Garcia 1D dice:

    That’s how good elections improvement over time and gives more freedom to choose.

    The rector is the one who takes the most important answers.

    Who also directs the university on the right track.

    One bad decision can lead to the worst circumstances.

  26. I think we need a good rector to keep the university .
    How often the rector’s dismissal?.
    Create convenient change of governing?.
    Winning is just what a rector for the work you do?.

    sergio eduardo palomino diaz 1D

  27. Marco Antonio Torres Soriano 1B dice:

    The rector is the most important person in the University.
    The rector should not be selected by any person.
    The rector should be selected by all students and workers of the University.
    Because we all part of the University.

  28. Omar Salvador Gutiérrez Zamora dice:

    It’s been a long time since politics were aimed to improve society
    Educational institutes have been long ruled by politicians.
    This means education as many other things are decided based on political decisions.
    The future of our country does not reside in politics, it resides in education, and what most people fail to notice, is that you need to be educated to be a good politician.

  29. Christian D. Rentería García 1.-D dice:

    I love your last phrase, we don’t depend from the “Rector” but a bad one could make things worst.
    I wish we could choose our own rector.
    If we all start learning for ourselves we probably dont need a Rector.
    If we keep straight in this way, we are going to fail.

  30. Erick Donaldo Arceo Magaña 1D dice:

    Well until now, i didn’t know as they choose at rector, so thank you.
    I agree with you.
    I guess that the rector should keep all of right in the university and if he can better it.
    I think that he should to be elected for all the university in special the students, they would should to make a votation into students,teachers and all university personals.

  31. Karen Stephanie Fletes Tejeda dice:

    It’s interesting to know the way how a new rector is elected.
    I hope the new one will do a better job for this university.
    I didn’t know all the process to be elected but I still think it should be fair and clean.
    A good decision about this has to be made because it involves all of us and it can affect us in a good or a bad way.

    Karen Stephanie Fletes Tejeda 1°”D”

  32. Luis Guillermo Becerra Solorzano dice:

    This reminds me of a chat I had a few days ago. I spoke to a former graduate from a career in La Universidad de Guadalajara. He was sad about the way teachers were chosen and how most of them are only there to receive a salary. I think that’s why it’s important to have good and well prepared rector in charge of a university.

  33. kevin roberto gomez peralta 1 "D" dice:

    Did not know the way to choose the rector.
    I did not know who was responsible for electing the rector.
    Seems that the universities have had to change the way people choose their representatives.
    I must admit that I do not like the idea that the government Choose the rector of the university.

  34. Amayelli Itzel Silva Contreras 1D dice:

    1º In most universities are involved in politics.

    2º Students need our university rectors are clear of politics.

    3º When referring to the guiding choice must be well based choosing so choose the best.

    4º Some guiding the end of his term of office policy pass.

  35. I have listened something about rectors election. But this is my first year as university student. I do not know much about it. In my university is very difficult to know at least the name of the rector. That’s according to the comments I’ve heard from some students in upper grades.

  36. julio cesar zamora ontiveros dice:

    Thanks for showing the reliadad of as a rector eligue.
    I hope the new president and work and spend ah do their work and nobuscar only elected office during his tenure.
    Totally agree on the relationship institutional governance and institutional performance.
    I hope and stop politas deciciones affect the operation of universities.

    julio cesar zamora ontivero 1 D

  37. Keila Abigail Valdéz Pérez 1D dice:

    It is important and interesting to know that there are ways of choosing the university government.
    The university government has a very important role in the country’s future.
    The rector of the university is a person very important as it will be key to improving education in the state.
    Unfortunately exist corruption in the election of the rectors, which results in the delay and lack of interest in improving education.

  38. Hector Jose Manzo Briceño 1D dice:

    This is true and forever.
    Themselves are supported to have a good job.
    Be counting and doing nothing is nothing.
    I don´t like elect a rector.

  39. José Luis Garza Gallegos dice:

    Democracy doesn’t exist, or at least not in México.
    I don’t know who are the candidates to rector and no one has questioned me about who I want for rectory.
    All the lies of the system are sad, we can’t trust in most of authorities.
    Are the other countries like this? Are their universities with the same problems?

  40. The Rector shot be a drafted person.
    He can not find a politic position.
    He must be committed with students.
    And He shut put his effort in that position.

  41. antonio torres figueroa dice:

    I like your to explain the forms of university governance.

    I think that, the election of the president should be for the students and teachers.

    I think that, the president is importan for the benefit of society

    The rector must be college professor foultless.

  42. victor alejandro escalera sanchez 1'D dice:

    Not just me how to choose a rector.
    Students do not take us into account for their choice.
    I do not really understand the issue.

  43. Jesus Roberto Trejo Quiroz 1B dice:

    Now I understand that it is every type of rector.
    I also think that having a good rector does not guarantee good for the university, but a bad rector could complicate things.
    I see that through the years every form of electing the rector has changed.
    Perhaps the rector authority is very important, but so is the students, who should choose.

  44. José Eduardo Aguilar Anguiano dice:

    I agree with the author Adrian Acosta.

    I interested the issues mentioned in the book.

    A new rector will not change the university directly, but, i wish that don’t harm the university.

    I like your post.

  45. José Eduardo Aguilar Anguiano dice:

    José Eduardo Aguilar Anguiano 1°B

  46. sergio rodrigo ceceña lares 1B dice:

    It is true that the course of the university depends on us the students, does not depend on that governing directs the school, rector is the one that we choose, the good functioning depends on the collaboration on all.

  47. The fact choose a rector is inconsequential. But that should be a democratic descicion sometimes is corrupt. Our disinterest contributes to the mistake, and then everyone is unhappy but hypocrites.

  48. Victor Manuel Estrada Chablé 1B dice:

    I learned that in the eighties most governments university worked with structures based on the dominance of the councils.
    The situation in the universities has evolved towards more pluralistic governance mechanisms and open.
    We know that the way to see this situation can be diferent depending by the person.
    I agree with the choice of director should not be construed as an individual or group to victory.

  49. Francisco Javier Gutierrez Mondragon 1o D dice:

    Probably this succession rectory this purchased.

    I like how he explains the way the rector elections were made.

    The Government not have why intervene in the election.

    The Rector is a very important part of the university.

  50. Edsel Barbosa Gonzalez 1D dice:

    Either way you have or want to choose a
    new rector, has to be clear benefits
    that it can bring to the Universities of Colima,
    aber hopefully passing, encourage teacher.

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