La escuela de mi niñez

Han pasado tres décadas, cierto, pero no recuerdo que en mis años de la escuela primaria los exámenes despertaran especial agitación o paralizaran el resto de las actividades escolares. Eran otros tiempos, y con ello no quiero juzgar que había mayor o menor calidad. Lo que no creo es que hayamos aprendido menos que en el presente.

A diferencia de antaño, en los días en curso las escuelas públicas y privadas aplican constantemente exámenes porque así está dictado. Entre quienes tenemos hijos en la escuela primaria, lo descubrí recién, es tema común escuchar o decir: “ayer fue el examen de español”, “mañana toca matemáticas”. La “cultura evaluadora” que padece la escuela es inocultable, casi motivo de orgullo. En sentido contrario a lo que piensan las voces dominantes, sostengo que es un síntoma de la enfermedad, no de buena salud.

Alguien, algunos (organismos y personas) vendieron la idea de que la educación mejora a fuerza de exámenes. Es la teoría del termómetro, como le llama genialmente Manuel Gil Antón: supone que entre más se mida la temperatura, más rápido y mejor se aliviará el enfermo. Nada hay que lo confirme, pero la idea galopa orgullosa entre las instituciones educativas. Por eso, los cambios en el sistema de exámenes, o los progresos en resultados, se anuncian con toda la pompa.

Uno de los peligros de esta fiebre evaluadora es que la razón de la enseñanza se agota en preparar para exámenes, como expresión de una inversión (perversión, quizá) del proceso formativo: lo evaluable define lo enseñable; sólo lo medible (positivismo absoluto) es digno de enseñarse. Esto ocurre ya, por ejemplo, cuando lo más importante del proceso educativo, creemos, son los resultados cuantificados mediante exámenes estandarizados, de la primaria a la universidad, y los aprendizajes, el fin de la enseñanza, pasan a segundo o último término.

¡Cuidado! No juzgo que es  inútil evaluar. Mucho menos, que no creo en la evaluación. Lo que digo es que solo evaluar no es la solución, que no cualquier tipo de evaluación es valiosa para producir información relevante. Afirmo, sin vacilación, que educar es mucho más que evaluar. Afirmo, tajante, que la escuela tiene un sentido más profundo que preparar a los estudiantes para elegir opciones en un test. Aseguro, aunque provoque escozor, que las matemáticas, el lenguaje o las ciencias –las áreas que mide el tótem llamado examen PISA-, son importantísimas, pero hay otras enseñanzas vitales que debe promover la escuela, y aparecen como graves carencias en la sociedad mexicana; me refiero, por ejemplo, a la socialización, al aprendizaje de normas y límites, al sentido de identidad, al valor de la autonomía personal, de la libertad y la dignidad, de la tolerancia, de la equidad; en otras palabras, a los dos pilares que el conocido “Informe Delors” definió como “aprender a ser” y “aprender a convivir con los otros”. ¿No se supone que eso, los pilares de la educación, son la apuesta en casi todas las instituciones, según sus documentos o discursos? ¿No decimos que se trata de formar a los estudiantes integralmente? ¿Cuál examen, de los que se encuentran en el aparador, estima la integralidad de la formación? ¿Esos pilares, lo esencial, en qué parte de la prueba PISA, o Enlace, se constata?

Comentarios

  1. Javier Alexis Cernas Avalos 1°D dice:

    Education is not only evalu exams, a good education is more than that. Education is passion for the books, learning and another interesting things. Some teachers think that education is just read a book and make exams, but in some cases the students just memorize book without understand anything. The most important thing of education is understand the things that you read.

  2. Ernesto Alcaraz Andrade 1*D dice:

    I think that it is very important that in classes the teacher take topics like you mention because it is too important that the education give to a student something else than just numbers,dates or Statistics.

    we like students need to know how to be with people and how we can relate with them in a good environment without a fights or discussions.

    I think that this kind of values should be teach in the first years of school when is more easy that the kids take this values to them lives.

  3. Edith Amezcua Barajas dice:

    Muy cierto, recuerdo que un exámen no nos quitaba el sueño, al menos a mi, y ahora escucho a mis sobrinos de edad de primaria, ya sea de colegio privado y público, la lluvia de exámenes, creo que tienes razón en que su afán de medir la educación se ha olvidade de la misma educación, que realmente es la importante. Hay otros .factores inmedibles de gran importancia, de valores, civismo, equidad, de saber ser, saber covivir, limites, etc. como tu mensionas, pero muy al contrario a todo ello se da el mentado «bullyng escolar», eso puede hablar de todas esas carencias inmedibles. Sin afán de juzgar, pues no conozco más del tema que lo que he vivido. Felicidades, siemore es muy grato y ameno aprender más con sus letras y experiencia. Hasta pronto.

  4. Javier Herrera Báez dice:

    Hola Juan Carlos, buenos días. Yo creo que los maestros y autoridades educativas necesitan voltear la cara hacia los padres y madres de esos alumnos pues es ahí, donde principalmente, se encuentra el otro pilar que no mide la prueba PISA o enlace. ¿qué salud física y emocional tenemos los padres y madres?. A mí me gustaría que hubiera centros de atención psicológica integral, proporcionados por el Estado en forma gratuita, en cada comunidad, colonia o ranchería para que allí acudamos con nuestros hijos para intentar ser funcionales y educar a nuestros hijos lo más saludable posible. Además que haya Centros deportivos en cada comunidad, colonia o ranchería con instalaciones eficientes, y personal capacitado, proporcionados por el Estado de forma gratuita. Hasta pronto Juan Carlos

  5. GERARDO FROILAN dice:

    A de cir verdad cuando evaluas ¿que evaluas? yo recuerdo cuando era niño mis profesores de primaria eranbastante entregados y tenian esa habilidad de explicar las clases que a veces no habia necesidad de anotar nada, todo te era explicado de manera tal que habia un dia en que se presentaban los padres de familia sin decir «agua va» y te ponian a prueba sin estudiar, recuerdo que en 5 año de primaria ya nos sabiamos los nombres de los animales por especie , quiropteros, eauinos, etc.. y los examenes realmente no eran ningun problema.
    Por otro lado hablando del bullying este no es nuevo solo que la sociedad se encarga darle nuevo nombre a las cosas, esto ha existido desde hace mucho tiempo. mas en las escuelas militares donde le llaman novatada.
    salaudos maestro de maestros.

  6. Soledad Caba dice:

    Doctor Buenos Tardes: El aprendizaje de normas y valores, “el aprender a ser” como lo menciona en su texto los maestros de primaria se los dejan totalmente a los padres de familia porque ellos dicen que “con el ejemplo los niños aprenden”. En una familia disfuncional el niño no le queda otra opción que aprender esos valores distorsionados; cuántos niños ahora hombres de bien aprendieron con el ejemplo de sus maestros. Los maestros deben de proporcionar una educación integral (como actividad extracurricular), tal vez es mucho trabajo porque ellos están preocupados por tener doble plaza a veces con funciones de director de escuela (que está bien todos queremos vivir con comodidad) el problema es que no preparan sus clases; no investigan si no saben. Ahora la tendencia es de no reprobar, el alumno es enviado al siguiente nivel con deficiencias. Nos encontramos a niños en Secundaria que no saben multiplicar ni dividir. Esa es la realidad
    saludos!

  7. Luis Guillermo Briceño Ochoa 1b dice:

    I think that nowdays must implement new forms of evaluation, more dynamic and less tedious than it are now. The tests are a good way to test and prove the knowledge of each person,but remember that aren´t the only way.

  8. Vane Fonseca dice:

    Coincido con su comentario sobre que la escuela tiene un sentido más profundo que el de preparar a los estudiantes para un test, así como las otras enseñanzas vitales que debe promover. En mi caso, yo estudié la primaria en un sistema Montessori y no recuerdo que en esta etapa de mi vida mi madre haya tenido que presionarme para hacer mis tareas, trabajos o estar lista para las evaluaciones. Los alumnos éramos independientes y convencidos de que el aprendizaje constante formaba parte de nuestras vidas.

  9. Rodriguez Niebla manuela 1B dice:

    Exams make me nervous and since I’m at school, I do assessments constant, when I see the results, I don´t like some. It’s a reflection of what I learned. I’m aware that not everything taught in school will help me to live my life.

  10. Carrillo Mosqueda Gustavo Alberto 1-B dice:

    My opinion is of that in the way of evaluating it does not have by that the important thing is what learned ace not what ace learned in this moment to extract in a what matters is what your can do and as you seize.

  11. María Lizbeth Ochoa Sarmienta 1B dice:

    you’re right JC, there must be not only the tests to evaluate,too involving many things which are not taken into account for our develop, the school must not only be to study, if not to develop as human beings and contribute to society in things to improve the quality of life.

  12. Francisco Javier Chan Ramirez dice:

    Very true what you say JC,but I call more attention to paragraph 5 where you score on that,it’s true that most schools focus more on mathematics, languages ​​and the PISA test good I think it’s great but and values, personal ethics, and learning to be, there are several terms that have been forgotten, they say that it’s taught at home,it’s true but would not it be good to earn in school?

  13. Salvador Hernandez Francisco 1-"A" dice:

    I think that this kind of values should be teach in the first years of school when is more easy that the kids take this values to them lives.
    I think that nowdays must implement new forms of evaluation, more dynamic and less tedious than it are now

  14. 1A Omar Alejandro Rios Del Toro dice:

    The teachers do not spend time to the comprehensive training in the test. Should since of school primary apply another evaluation methods besides of the test. I share the idea that the tests are part to know that both know. The students since small should have culture of know be, know do and know learn.

  15. Luis Antonio Naranjo Mora 1B dice:

    As my English Teacher says, abstract knowledge is. It´s good to us we assess students with tests because it may reflect our knowledge. But it does not only apply testing. This is what to teach and implement the knowledge gained by practicing it in daily life.

  16. Roberto Quintero Cervantes 1`D dice:

    The education is very different now a days,some students learn,some just memorize the stuff they study and don’t understand.Thats why some students don’t do well in exams.

  17. J. Enrique Madrigal Diaz 1A dice:

    I think this should be teamwork involuing three sides, parents, teachers and students.
    But sometimes, only teachers makes this job or sometimes students makes this job or sometimes dont work anyone.
    Is a comproise from all, teaching and learning because in the end we will all benefit

  18. Jose Antonio Aguiar Palacios dice:

    I agree with you. Education is not only based on exams, lots of tests. I remember that before were not too many exams. I believe that teachers find it easier to say apply a test and with that assessed them. I think the best thing about education is those hopes of want to learn something.

  19. Alvaro Arellano Gálvez 1A dice:

    My opinion is that education not is only Read and learn everything they say teachers more than anything we must understand the classes.
    Teachers also try to make the most dynamic calases for students and so learning it easier.

  20. Alan Cisneros Godinez 1"a" dice:

    My opinion is that it will come true when the exam time you see us scared in that it is the opposite.
    I think if we had more tests this does not happen often.
    In the tests we put into practice what we did.
    It may be better to do exams more often.

  21. Juan Pedro Tintos Mendoza 1 B dice:

    Tests, a really simple word which causes terror to many students, but not for me lol. I think taking assessments is a really good way to evaluate ourselves and see how much have we learned.
    Talking about tests, I think it is not a reason to be afraid, if you pay attention in classes, do your homework always and study for the exam you will be able to answer it correctly and it won´t be reason to be scared or afraid. By the way, I´m agree with you Juan Carlos, education is more than just evaluate with tests and teachers must worry about teaching us values and to worry about our learning.

  22. ivan alejandro novela macias 1°B dice:

    All our lives we have tried to teach it that way applying the tests in a whole week on consecutive days one by one and there are times that apply several in the same day, in my personal opinion that do not like it so can not digest the studied so the students pressed by the tests that coming underside of what lay just studied. and other teachings to which mention is made ami apparently learns that life is not taught in a classroom.

  23. Irving De La Mora 1B dice:

    I’m think that a rating, not a form to know level of students, their capacities and abilities, that’s where the teacher, who qualify with conscience and not numbers.

  24. ADRIAN ALEJANDRO VIZCAINO MARTINEZ 1B dice:

    Okay to do tests to the students, but it is not the only way to prove that we have both learned, there are more ways to see that we have learned and should take into account, so many tests makes us nervous.

  25. Jose CArlos Hernandez Hernandez 1B dice:

    The performance of a student when taking an exam depends on the mood in which the student is in this day. He could may have personal problems which prevent from concentrating as he could and can’t achieve optimal results.

  26. Armando Vazquez Zamora 1° B dice:

    Good idea, I think that education has changed, as it was before, now a good way of assessing students would be tests, because so they would know that they are both learning students. But tests must be k students know, not to questions of issues that have not seen yet.

  27. Ana Laura Ochoa Vallin 1 D dice:

    You’re right Juan Carlos Yañez. The teachers have to help us understand the stuff that explain. Not only do test without being sure that we understand. They have orient to better people, not only to give his class and since. Teaching children values and how relate with the people.
    This would be better for our education!

  28. luis humberto urzua araiza 1b dice:

    No doubt the times are changing times better mucahs other worse.
    When you mention your school days memory when it comes ami taxes kindergarten and as they say remember is to live again.

  29. Alicia Soto 1°A dice:

    Evaluation in school is part of a constant exercise of the powers of the students, Ie being, knowing and doing in different contexts and situations, however, if material values-based education, where students are taught to bethoughtful, aware and critical of themselves and their immediate context and the world, , Since unfortunately we are in a world where not enough to know, but make decisions and act on social and natural events that are experienced in the present. (:

  30. Alicia Soto 1°A dice:

    Evaluation in school is part of a constant exercise of the powers of the students, Ie being, knowing and doing in different contexts and situations, however, if material values-based education, where students are taught to bethoughtful, aware and critical of themselves and their immediate context and the world, , Since unfortunately we are in a world where not enough to know, but make decisions and act on social and natural events that are experienced in the present. (:

  31. Rommel Salvador Juárez Rodriguez 1 B dice:

    I agree with you Mr. JC, tests are not the only way to demonstrate the level of learning, because they can be put to study one night before the test and that studied is learned in a short time but later this was forgotten. Before was not required to disclose because it taught better and the review wasn’t all for the rating.

  32. 1A Ricardo Ploneda Espindola dice:

    Presently, students are no longer prepared with knowledge that allows them to further progress
    Not only talking to develop their reasoning skills
    Just prepare for the short term.
    Words are taught what is necessary and useful to know only of matter.
    I believe the school should not only be a place that manufactures integrate people into society, but also to transform society.

  33. EDGAR DANIEL GAITAN RODRIGUEZ 1°A dice:

    Education is not just going to school to sit and get to read but also that teachers try to make more dynamic calases students and make learning easier.
    I think if we had more evidence that this does not happen often.

  34. Jonathan Andres Llamas Cruz 1B dice:

    You’re right, in past, it wasn’t common or very important make exams each week. Assessment has become in the easiest kind to know the knowledge of a person. I think this is a mistake. Everyone knowledge is totally abstract and very delicate to drive as a simple 1 to 10 numeration.

  35. José Carlos Llerenas Montes 1-A dice:

    I also think that tests shouldn’t be the only that you must evaluate a student.
    The tests are very useful to know how much the student has learned.
    As the article says, «learning to be» and «learn to live with others» is also important.
    However, they aren’t due importance in our education system yet.

  36. Osdy Gersaid Fletes Arreola "1A" dice:

    I think it should already be implementing more and better things that teachers believe that students help their students enriches.
    I think I do not always have to evaluate tests there are other ways to qualify and see what the student has learned.
    I thinks they teachers should make students more interested in their assessments.

  37. Miguel Leòn Bautista 1º "A" dice:

    I think it is good to apply tests often.
    But I feel that this is not the way to achieve a good apredisaje as aprendern students what will come in and after consideration and there are few that store this information by a long time.
    I think the teachers always worry about finishing what makes the curriculum but few who care to verify that students actually stored in your brain all that information.

  38. Alejandro Gilberto Heredia Morán 1B dice:

    I agree that we are guided by a «superficial» education. Also I agree that the base of a good education begins in the home but that is in every one as it is wanted to form. And speaking on like evaluating, you must take into account that we are in constant test;and depending as we behave or we act before these tests, it is the way in which we say that we are capable of doing things; we are taking to talk about us.

  39. Alan Rair Guzman Delgado 1ªD dice:

    I think evaluate is very important, those exams are a document to prove the students know. But in other situations are just memorized concepts. I think in many times the exam just prove that the student know, but just memorized answers y a few days forgot everything. I believe that depends a lot of the way of the teachers to teach.

  40. Manuel Alejandro Rodriguez Valdovinos 1°D dice:

    I remember my primary school exams were a headache.
    I think that teachers are the ones that have a good development for students who also have it.
    Parents also play an important role in the development of students and their attitudes as such.

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