¿Cómo educan los mejores?

En algunas decisiones de política educativa nacional reside la creencia de que replicando ejemplos (no siempre bien entendidos) alcanzaremos los resultados que hoy presentan los países de donde importamos tales recetas. Hay una suerte de visión mágica de que solo cambiando la escuela, a sus maestros y con muchos exámenes, sin alterar nada más (nimiedades como la sociedad, la cultura, el ejercicio del poder, los medios informativos), bastará para que nuestros niños y jóvenes alcancen resultados espectaculares en los exámenes internacionales, o que nuestras escuelas se conviertan en punto de referencia para otros países del mundo.

Entre los países de los que todos hablan cuando se trata de ejemplificar la excelencia educativa está Finlandia. Recientemente el propio secretario de Educación Pública, que mucho sabe de medicina e influenzas, justificó una decisión señalando que lo mismo hacían en ese país; sin embargo, el sistema educativo finlandés es muy distinto al mexicano, y las decisiones que se toman aquí apuntan a ensanchar diferencias.

En una entrada reciente en su blog, la política y educadora ecuatoriana Rosa María Torres resume algunos porqués del éxito finlandés, con base en un texto ajeno que describe los “26 hechos sorprendentes sobre el sistema educativo no ortodoxo de Finlandia”, en comparación con la educación en Estados Unidos, pero que fácilmente nosotros podemos usar con el mismo fin.

En la presentación, Rosa María enfatiza como muy importante que los extraordinarios resultados se alcanzan “sin torturar a los estudiantes y a sus familias, haciendo de la educación y del aprendizaje en el medio escolar una experiencia gratificante, a diferencia de lo que acontece hoy con otros países también ubicados en la cima de PISA como son Hong Kong o Corea del Sur”.

De estos hechos sorprendentes seleccioné algunos de los que más fácilmente pueden ser comparados con nuestro caso. Destaco los siguientes, que transcribo textualmente:

1. Los niños y niñas finlandeses empiezan la escolaridad a los 7 años de edad.

2. Hasta la adolescencia rara vez son sometidos a pruebas o se les envía tareas a la casa.

3. Durante los primeros seis años no se evalúa a los niños.

4. Existe solamente una prueba estandarizada obligatoria, la cual se aplica cuando los alumnos tienen 16 años.

5. Todos los alumnos, independientemente de su inteligencia o capacidad, aprenden en la misma aula.

6. Finlandia gasta por alumno alrededor de 30% menos que Estados Unidos.

7. 66% de los estudiantes ingresan a la universidad (el índice más alto en toda Europa).

8. La diferencia entre estudiantes con bajos y con altos rendimientos es la más pequeña del mundo.

9. Las clases de ciencias tienen un  límite de 16 estudiantes a fin de que puedan realizar experimentos prácticos en cada clase.

10. Los estudiantes de primaria tienen 75 minutos de receso cada día; en Estados Unidos, solo 27 minutos.

11. Los profesores finlandeses pasan 4 horas al día frente al aula y dedican 2 horas a la semana en el plantel para “desarrollo profesional”.

12. Finlandia tiene el mismo número de profesores que la ciudad de Nueva York, pero menos alumnos (600.000 en comparación con 1.1 millones en NY).

13. El sistema escolar finlandés es financiado 100% por el Estado.

14. Todos los profesores deben tener una maestría, subsidiada en su totalidad.

15. Los futuros profesores son seleccionados entre el 10% de los mejores graduados.

16. No existe pago por mérito para los profesores (basado en los rendimientos o puntajes de los alumnos).

17. Los profesores gozan del mismo estatus que los médicos o los abogados.

Al final, la doctora Torres resume y releva: “a) NO a la evaluación y a las pruebas, b) NO es centralizado, c) NO da prioridad a la excelencia sino a la equidad, d) NO fomenta la competencia sino la cooperación entre los alumnos, e) NO aboga por más tiempo de estudio sino por más juego y más tiempo libre”.

¿Entonces, nosotros estamos en tránsito hacia un sistema exitoso, o con implantar por decreto la “cultura de la evaluación” (pruebas PISA, Enlace, evaluación universal a docentes, etc.) transformaremos la educación de nuestros estudiantes y la calidad de los profesores?

Twitter@soyyanez

Comentarios

  1. Daniela Moctezuma Garcia 1A dice:

    The education of Mexico, is a copy of education of other countries.

    But acquire this method when has been a failure in those countries.

    So education in Mexico has not improved.

    If we want education improve, we have to invent our own method of study.

  2. Andrés dice:

    Debemos innovar, las malas copias tienen consecuencias. Amén de que de que el circulo vicioso debe romperse, malos maestros-malos alumnos, no nos podemos pasar la vida experimentando y menos con los médicos que nos van a atender, los abogados que nos van a defender, los analistas que van dar herramientas de diagnóstico o los químicos que sintetizarán nuevos fármacos, solo por mencionar algunos.
    Definitivamente la educación no va a avanzar haciendo paradas continuas para asimilar reformas y reformas, modelos tras modelos… la conciencia traicionera de los maestros no nos deja ver mas allá de nuestra propia comodidad.

  3. Me encantaría haber visto en esa larga lista, algunas otras cositas como: el perfil de quienes diseñan los planes y programas de estudio Finlandés, el perfil o currículum de quienes ostentan el cargo de ministros de Educación y de Cultura, el presupuesto que invierte el gobierno a las Universidades Públicas (en pesitos o dólares), el subsidio que inyecta la Iniciativa privada a los proyectos de investigación en ciencia y Tecnología, la carga horaria del docente y sus periodos de descanso, el apoyo que tiene intramuros en asistentes para el desarrollo de sus clases… Voy por que nos evalúen a nosotros los maestros, pero que nos pongan al ladito de los secretarios, representantes sindicales y gobernantes. Se vería linda la estadística que arrojaría del nivel educativo y cultural de quienes tienen en sus manos esta tarea.

  4. Edsel Barbosa 1D dice:

    Sometimes we have to follow the steps of
    others, but would have to
    acer our own education reform
    poruq are implementing methods, which failed
    in other countries.

  5. Mexico its a important country but.. People are so loose.
    Education can not be split without first being formally evaluated by people who want to overcome more of what exists.
    at the counter, we should be able to give more than just something to agree to approve and move forward as a country and as citizens develop globally collapsing more unable to meet these expectations

  6. well

    I think what

    the difference is truly remarkable education system a paies other, here in mexino unfortunately, we lack much, but tambiein is true, we have many roadblocks, estratejia to change, we have to clear the way of dirt and corruption
    regards

  7. Saul Alejandro Jimenez Mendoza 1ºA dice:

    It is a mistake to compare the education of a country to another.

    It requires an education system appropriate and in line with our country, there is no need to imitate others.

    First we need better teachers and students, and then create a reform in education.

    Education is a very controversial topic.

  8. Carlos Alberto Santoyo Lopez 1A dice:

    First of all, Finland have the best education.
    Examples are very well, if these are learned.
    All students independently of their intelligence or capacity, it learn in the same classroom.
    We should be more cooperative.

  9. Finland is incredible. It isn’t hard to understand why it’s prosperity as a country. But sometimes we are focused in the appearance of good education, instead of a real quality of this education. It’s surprising for me how a few education systems are subestimated.

  10. David Toledo Zúñiga 1B dice:

    Education systems are very different.
    And results in a matter of education are very different.
    But not only is the education system that must change, also the teachers and the students.
    Is a good example for this country.

  11. Felipe Lao-kiun Alcantar Lam 1B dice:

    I want to live in Finlandia
    That is a good education
    The best is the recess
    I like that

  12. Jorge Caballero dice:

    The difference in education is scandalous.
    I must admit that it is doing something about it.
    But note that it is not sufficient.
    Not everything is in the hands of those who govern us … most of it is in our hands.

  13. Marco Antonio Torres Soriano 1B dice:

    Education is’nt the only thing wrong.
    The government should work best.
    Many teachers are not strict with students, but they are loaded with tasks and jobs.

  14. Marco Antonio Lopez Mendoza 1B dice:

    Is a very practical way to educate but I think they already live with it for a long time and would take up in Mexico hundreds of years to achieve this but of course we can not.

  15. JOSE EDUARDO CORTES CERNAS 1B dice:

    The text is very interesting.
    I see that in other countries, education is better.
    I hope that Mexico can improve their education.
    Would be good that Mexico did point 9 and 14.

  16. kevin roberto gomez peralta 1"D" dice:

    Should adopt these education techniques.
    Take education techniques that we have seen fail will not serve.
    I seen here taking as new learning techniques that have failed in other countries.

  17. Ricardo Gomez Guerrero dice:

    I enjoyed your publication on “How best educated?
    And I guess the truth as long list of surprising facts
    Well I must say that as I have always been amazed by more marivillosas publications as you do.

  18. José Eduardo Aguilar Anguiano 1°B dice:

    I find it disgusting that want to continue to improve education through exams.

    Should not compare Mexico with more developed countries.

    I hope they improve the quality of teachers

    I liked your post.

  19. Jesus Roberto Trejo Quiroz 1B dice:

    In Mexico the education has been taken from other ineffective education systems.
    I like the educational system of Finland.
    Must be a good experience studying in Finland.
    Mexico shoulds work a little more on their education.

  20. miguel virgilio jimenez brena 1A dice:

    We need to create our education system and stop using the system of other countries as example.
    Also I think we need to do that education be more confortable and change the way of thing about it of our kids.
    The education on finland maybe work because students are not under pressure because they don’t have a lot of exams and they have good teachers with a master degree.

  21. Edwin Preciado dice:

    Very interesting your text
    Very good sentences to reflect.
    Very good way to express
    thanks for your article

  22. Ignacio Ramirez 1A dice:

    Mexico needs to improve its competitiveness there education to other nations.
    Very important your comments about finland.
    It is very interesting education in Finland.
    Good article Dr.

  23. Jose Manuel Tapia Gonzalez 1A dice:

    Very good text Doctor!
    The comparison between Finland and Mexico is very different, because in Mexico, the childrens begin your studies at the 4 year and in primary at the six year.
    Finland is a model to follow to that Mexico have a better education.
    Thanks for you article Doctor.

  24. Erick Donaldo Arceo Magaña 1D dice:

    It is a mistake to compare the education of a country to another.
    Education systems are very different.
    Education is’nt the only thing wrong.
    Nice articule.

  25. Keila Abigail Valdez Perez 1D dice:

    Your article is very interesting.
    It is true that we should encourage cooperation rather than competition.
    Because students sink each other instead of helping each other.
    Politicians compete to do their will, they not cooperate for a common goal.

  26. Adrian contreras 1 A dice:

    Thait youth and children do not deserve this education.

    The choice of teachers is very bad.

    Mexico is because personal inrests come before education.

    I fell rally bad that way of educting.

  27. Víctor Iván López González 1A dice:

    Education in Mexico is not very good.

    The state has to be 100% with education as in Finland.

    The government needs to pay more attention to the study.

    People need to study more and succeed as professionals.

  28. Amayelli Itzel Silva Contreras 1º D dice:

    For good education is not enough to take ideas from others but only improve and build upon them.

    To get a good education we must make many changes in the education system.

    The facts taken and displayed in the text were carefully selected for comparison.

    Summarizes what is interesting and reveals Dr. Torres.

  29. Christian D. Rentería García 1.-D dice:

    We should create our own ideas.
    We need to create or own education.
    Government need to spend more money on education.
    If we want to succed we need to try doing things by ourselves

  30. Should only take the best of an education system.
    We can be a better education system provided all bring something.
    In Mexico we are slow, but if we have to move forward.
    We must do so with large steps.

  31. José Luis Garza Gallegos 1ºD dice:

    I know three families that use educational system of home school or something like that.
    Is there some schools withs modality in México?
    I think that its possible to make a college with this finland system.
    Well, we have a lot of changes to do!

  32. edgar eduardo zepeda orozco dice:

    Mexico its a important country but.. People are so loose.
    To get a good education we must make many changes in the education system.
    It is a mistake to compare the education of a country to another.

  33. Miguel Arias Sandoval 1A dice:

    The education in mexico is a bad copy the education of other.

    The authorities mexican only can think in the money and don’t in the education.

    Mexico will need many years for change all this problem.

  34. Luis Enrique Flores Ramirez 1°a dice:

    Education systems are very different.

    The government should work best.

    Take education techniques that we have seen fail will not serve.

    Very good sentences to reflect.

  35. Roberto Banda 1A dice:

    So strange that you post this.
    You know that the model of study is called “For competencies”.
    Never I agree in this with university.
    You do not know or You forget that is sad see to classmate question for you qualification,only for know if he overcame you or not, They live competing with you,they become in arrogant.

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