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ABC del financiamiento educativo

Posted by Juan Carlos Y谩帽ez Velazco

Ahora que se aproxima la preparaci贸n del programa educativo para el sexenio, uno de los temas que ya reclama definiciones estructurales es el financiamiento. Las decisiones al respecto ser谩n m谩s reveladoras que los discursos y documentos del presidente electo y de su equipo en la materia, sobre todo frente a la agenda instalada social y pol铆ticamente, destacando puntos como la ampliaci贸n de la cobertura en ense帽anza superior, la obligatoriedad del bachillerato y los resultados en las pruebas estandarizadas, tan apreciados por los gobiernos. En las resoluciones sobre la inversi贸n se trazar谩n las prioridades aut茅nticas, o una buena parte de ellas.

Por la trascendencia y car谩cter pol茅mico conviene su discusi贸n p煤blica, con bases y argumentos racionales, con datos y en funci贸n del inter茅s com煤n. En esa intenci贸n quiero repasar algunos conceptos b谩sicos del financimiento de la educaci贸n superior. Me apoyar茅 en uno de los principales expertos en nuestro medio, Rollin Kent Serna, profesor de la Benem茅rita Universidad Aut贸noma de Puebla, quien present贸 una conferencia en el 鈥淔oro sobre financiamiento y gesti贸n de la educaci贸n superior鈥, organizado por la Asociaci贸n Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educaci贸n Superior en la Universidad de Guadalajara, hace siete a帽os (13 de octubre de 2005).

A juicio de Rollin Kent las principales dimensiones del financiamiento de la educaci贸n superior son seis, y su evoluci贸n es notoria en el pa铆s en las d茅cadas recientes:

1. El origen de los recursos, esto es, qui茅n cubre los costos. El viraje es claro: se ha diversificado la procedencia de los recursos como efecto de la expansi贸n de la ense帽anza superior privada.

2. El monto de los recursos. El diagn贸stico es poco alentador: el presupuesto para la educaci贸n superior pr谩cticamente se estanc贸 y se incumple la asignaci贸n del 1% del PIB aprobado hace una d茅cada.

3. El modo de asignaci贸n de los recursos, expresado en una pregunta m煤ltiple: 驴c贸mo y qui茅n decide cu谩nto se va a gastar?, 驴en qu茅 se va a gastar? El modo experiment贸 grandes cambios con la alternancia pol铆tica, que obligaron a negociaciones presupuestales entre los poderes legislativo y ejecutivo, y concedieron un poder in茅dito a los legisladores, que no pocas veces enmendaron los proyectos de egresos pero tambi茅n originaron pr谩cticas clientelares.

4. El ejercicio del gasto: 驴qui茅n realiza el gasto, en qu茅 lo hace, y c贸mo lo hace? En el tema la mutaci贸n es evidente; dice Rollin Kent: se redujo la discrecionalidad, aument贸 la exigencia de rendici贸n de cuentas y nacieron los fondos concursables.

5. Los costos de cada uno de los agentes de la educaci贸n: 驴cu谩nto cuesta educar a un estudiante?, 驴cu谩nto cuestan los profesores, los investigadores, los administradores y los trabajadores manuales? Convertida en una caja negra todav铆a, coloca a la eficiencia y a la racionalidad burocr谩tica en posici贸n de mayor poder铆o.

6. 驴Por qu茅 invertimos en educaci贸n superior?, 驴qu茅 espera el pa铆s de esta inversi贸n? Quiz谩 la siguiente idea resuma buena parte de lo ocurrido: 鈥淓n cuanto a los valores que subyacen al gasto educativo, todos sabemos que ha habido un viraje significativo hacia lo utilitario, hacia lo aplicable鈥 Claro, hoy est谩 puesta en la agenda el tema de la equidad, y no podr铆amos olvidar el debate emergente sobre la llamada 鈥榮ociedad del conocimiento鈥. Lo que hay, entonces, es un debate sobre los valores.鈥 As铆 pues, el financiamiento no es un asunto de contabilidad, de pesos y presupuestos, sino de valores y de juegos pol铆ticos; un tema de la pol铆tica m谩s que de la administraci贸n.

Finalmente, una de las conclusiones -y consensos- es que la inversi贸n educativa nacional es insuficiente, pero su mayor eficiencia e impacto exigen reformas de fondo para hacerla m谩s redituable. En otras palabras: es irresponsable una inversi贸n sin controles racionales en un pa铆s lastrado por la pobreza, la corrupci贸n y la desigualdad; pero una rendici贸n de cuentas con un car谩cter comprensivo y entendiendo la l贸gica de la instituci贸n universitaria. Por ahora, los indicios consolidan una tendencia regresiva y burocratizante. Si habr谩 cambios o no, lo sabremos en breve.

Twitter@soyyanez

 

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31 thoughts on “ABC del financiamiento educativo

  1. Jorge Caballero

    Account of reaourses spent is a great idea.
    Changing educational investment doesn’t sound good.
    It strikes me that the power of legislators has changed.
    I hope something good result of all this.

  2. Daniela Moctezuma Garcia 1A

    I hope that is performed a good financing for education.

    In point five, I found good questions.

    Is true, financing no only is weights accounting and budgets.

    But values and political games, more than anything political.

  3. JOSE EDUARDO CORTES CERNAS 1B

    The text is very interesting.
    I hope that the financing of education improves.
    I hope there is more transparency in the financing.
    Over time we will see how things turn out.

  4. David Toledo Z煤帽iga 1B

    The games in politics make that funding is not correct.
    Only the Government knows where comes the money destined for education.
    Perhaps not all the money reaches its destination.
    In a Country with corruption, we don’t know the use given to the money intended for education.

  5. Carlos Alberto Santoyo Lopez 1A

    Education should be a theme of interest and don麓t of support.
    Baccalaureate should be obligatory.
    Resources must be well distributed.
    Should have transparency in resource.

  6. Erick Donaldo Arceo Maga帽a 1D

    I agree with Rollin Kent.
    I think that in all the schools should be that way.
    It’s a pity that in some schools don’t know how to do almost nothing of that
    Good article Doctor, well done.

  7. Saul Alejandro Jimenez Mendoza 1潞A

    Financing of education should be the most important issue in any country.

    I think that if there was so much corruption, there would be more money to support education.

    Better education benefits the country and the student.

    The education will be always the topic most controversial.

  8. Marco Antonio Torres Soriano 1B

    I hope that things will change.
    I hope the government will invest in resources for schools.
    I like that mexico would be better.
    But unfortunately mexico is a very corrupt country.

  9. RICARDO GOMEZ GUERRERO 1B

    Always has been in our country a game of politics, do not take the necessary measures or value good ideas on how to apply the expenses of the country, in investing and if not, is something that should be treated with sensitivity and see especially Reaping the Benefits, where to invest detailed analysis.

  10. Antonio Torres Figueroa

    Many unanswered questions.

    The educational funding.

    Is the loot of a few.

    Using it as a political springboard.

  11. Jesus Roberto Trejo Quiroz 1B

    The funding of the education it’s very important.
    We as students it’s a topic interesting.
    Rollin Kent has all the rightly.
    The point number three and four I think are very important.

  12. kevin roberto gomez peralta 1 "D"

    Has reason rollin Kent.
    Education should be first and foremost.
    Not have to play with the budgets allocated to education.
    If they as want to improve schools.

  13. Marco Antonio Lopez Mendoza 1B

    I very much like some suggestions for our president really only needs to throw him to walk and simply do not remain as they are proposed.

  14. Keila Abigail Valdez Perez 1D

    We know that part of the budget to education ends in the hands of corruption.
    While there are politicians who profit from the education of Mexicans, Mexico cannot move forward.
    It is sad that some politicians only want to gain power and money at the expense of progress in Mexico.
    We hope that the next administration, we improve a little.

  15. Felipe Lao-kiun Alcantar Lam 1B

    I feel like the country is useless
    I think there is a little of hope
    It’s very very weak
    Maybe we can change our cuntry in another life

  16. Mar铆a Guadalupe Alvarez Negrete 1掳 "B"

    I hope someday people understand that education
    is the most important and we should spend money on it. Educating, not overpaying for people who do not

  17. Adrian contreras 1 A

    Education is very important.

    Are exciting dimensions of education.

    Point Number six is interesting.

    I hope the government will invest in resources for schools.

  18. Ignacio Ramirez 1A

    Hopefully the government invests the money effectively.
    Hopefully the investment is correct.
    For the country’s growth.
    Good article Dr.

  19. Edwin Preciado

    Very interesting your text
    Very good sentences to reflect.
    Very good way to express
    thanks for your article

  20. Luis Alonso Hernandez 1ro A

    well I hope what the administration is very bad

    because they haven’t a good control

    now what Rollin kent said is true and some sad

    in education dont exist some advance and we not know who are responsible.

  21. Edsel Barbosa Gonzalez 1D

    Changing education is me
    excellent but systems that seek nu
    already failed in other countries.
    What surprises me is that the president of
    the prepublica not have any authority.

  22. Amayelli Itzel Silva Contreras 1潞 D

    At all times of education is important as funding and majea this for an upgrade.

    It is important to show how funding based economic education

    Dimensions of funding shown are interesting.

    The conclusion shows is interesting and shows good reason.

  23. Jose de Jesus Jimenez Garcia 1D

    In Mexico has always invested very little money on education.
    The government steals more than it invests in education.
    More money on schools and less money on prisons.
    Mexico spends only 5.7% of its GDP.

  24. Jos茅 Luis Garza Gallegos 1潞D

    One per cent!! really? That’s sad.
    I think that we don’t pay for investigatores, our teachers uses books and online resources already, we need to make better inversions with our PIB.
    I feel bad, really, our own leaders dont know how much teachers we have, then how they are earning a payment? Where are our taxes?
    About point six, i think that we nee to covr first all the 4 first levels on our education, with that, our students could study something in a private school, but without a good basic education thats near to be imposible.

  25. edgar eduardo zepeda orozco

    The games in politics make that funding is not correct.
    Using it as a political springboard.
    We know that part of the budget to education ends in the hands of corruption.

  26. Jose Manuel Tapia Gonzalez 1A

    The Education is very important in Mexico.
    We’ll be better every day.
    Is very interesing this text.
    I hope the government.

  27. Manuel Salvador Salda帽a Rojas 1掳A

    The bad politics make that funding is not correct.
    We it鈥檚 a topic interesting.
    Is a good publication.
    The publication talk about the true.

  28. V铆ctor Iv谩n L贸pez Gonz谩lez 1A

    It is a moot funding.

    Investing can be good or bad.

    Taking risks is always valid.

    To finance either have to be very smart.

  29. Miguel Arias Sandoval 1A

    The financing of the bad education in mexico y is worse that the education in itself.

    Is a good idea the obligatoriness of upper half.

    The reforms don’t the best and don’t competent.

  30. Roberto Banda 1A

    With many revolts discourage me.
    I do not believe that he will help much.
    What bad is that the end depend of political.
    And only enters and exit of their ears the tips of specialists of the matter.

  31. Luis Enrique Flores Ramirez 1掳a

    We have to start worrying about our education.

    Resources must be well distributed.

    I like your comment.

    El cambio de la inversi贸n educativa suena bien.

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