Hay dos maneras de aumentar la población estudiantil. Una, la común, es la que todos suelen pensar –los que piensan en ello, por supuesto-: que más estudiantes de nuevo ingreso se incorporen a los sistemas, niveles o instituciones educativas. En el caso de México, como en otros países, es imperativo hacerlo, promoviendo opciones y más instituciones educativas, pero también con becas y otros apoyos. Hacerlo es un acto de justicia social, especialmente porque el acceso a la escuela, sobre todo a la media superior y superior, está condicionado por el estatus socioeconómico de la familia. Las estadísticas y elaboraciones sociológicas son reveladoras.
Siendo indispensable que se incremente la matrícula con la llegada de nuevos estudiantes, y que se profundice dicha vía, hay una segunda, descuidada y más complicada: que quienes ingresen no salgan por expulsión o deserción tempranas, derivadas de distintas causas. Sobre esta estrategia hay pocas experiencias gratificantes, por lo menos en México. Ello ha dado pie a muchas estrategias que todavía han sido insuficientes, como los programas de becas o los de tutorías, probablemente porque no han ido a la causa sino a los síntomas.
No aumentar la matrícula por la vía de la retención de estudiantes, equivale a la pretensión de llenar un balde de agua sin reparar un agujero en el fondo del recipiente, que en mayor o menor medida evitará que se cumpla el propósito. No es el mejor símil, pero el hoyo ilustra, en un caso elemental, lo que en la escuela aparece como normal.
Cifras oficiales indican que la expulsión o deserción en la educación media superior alcanza a los 600 mil jóvenes por año, que sumados a los 530 mil de la secundaria (reconocido hace unos días por el director general del INEA), consuman una escandalosa cantidad de esperanzas destrozadas por la ineficiencia social y escolar. Estos comportamientos, especialmente en el nivel medio superior, evitan un aumento sustancial de la matrícula, pues para que sea visible tendría que ser muy superior a los 600 mil expulsados-desertores. Y 800 mil nuevos estudiantes al año, por ejemplo, no es una cantidad fácil.
Si lográramos contener esa dolorosa sangría, un esfuerzo paulatino, aun insuficiente, bastaría para que en diez años avanzaremos en el aumento de la matrícula. En otras palabras: solo evitar que se vayan la mitad de los que ahora salen de la escuela, en diez años se traduciría en 3 millones de estudiantes más en el periodo. Se dice fácil, pero es complicado; debe hacerse, sin embargo.
Una obviedad: el tema es de la escuela, del sistema educativo y los profesores, pero también es del sistema social, que debe promover estrategias de acción afirmativa donde sea preciso. Si no lo hacemos, en meses o años cientos de miles más engrosarán las filas del lamentable desgranamiento escolar, que puede significar una doble exclusión: de la escuela y del sistema social. Una doble exclusión casi imposible de revertir por medios lícitos para vivir dignamente. De ese tamaño es uno de los cruciales retos del país.
33 thoughts on “Discursos y realidades”
José Manuel Ruiz Calleja
Me parece un apunte crucial que complementa las intenciones de “Educación para Todos” que hoy apunta principalmente a los problemas de equidad referidos al ingreso (acceso) y aunque todavía no lo alcancemos es preciso pensar desde ahora que no basta con el acceso, es también importante la retención, problema complejo pero al que hay que dedicar también atención. El Derecho a la Educación va más allá de garantizar el acceso a las instituciones educativas, ese es solo un primer paso, una premisa necesaria pero no suficiente.
Juan Carlos Yáñez Velazco
Estimado doctor, gracias por leerme y compartir tu comentario.
Buena noche Juan Carlos, me da gusto retomar la lectura de tus escritos, siempre muy ilustrativos sobre este tema que nos interesa, la educaciòn.
Juan Carlos Yáñez Velazco
Gracias estimado. Es un gusto enorme que me leas.
Buenos días, entre la población estudiantil existe la idea del Licenciado Taquero o el Ingeniero Taxista, debemos estar conscientes de que el éxito de las generaciones recientemente egresadas de una licenciatura SON EL MOTOR DE LAS NUEVAS GENERACIONES. Hay que vincular egresados con estudiantes y universidades con el sector privado.
saludos estimado pensador.
Miguel Rosales Ochoa 2A
I think the quality of students has come down by the poor preparation and lack of ethics of some teachers.
The commitment to better education is lost on students missing values como en todas los involucrados en su formación.
Experts talk about figures but never what is being done to improve this create programs that sometimes have nothing to gain and only wastes time and money.
Not all the fault of the teachers parents should also put things as interest in their childrenand support them in their problems.
Irving De La Mora 2B
I think there more factors to take consider, like that are not studying where their abilities are fully utilized, and that they are only for study, this starts from basic education, where they begin to have subject with a certain branch of specialty.
Rodriguez Niebla Manuela 2 B
I think this is and it will be a constant problem, hard and tired, but I think that with the only act of discussing it we are finding a solution. I think that it should be vocational speech from elementary school to impulse and divulgate the education´s actual situation in Mexico, and this way child can take conscience step by step about the importance of their own education.
Maribel Perallta Larios 1°D
My opinion the measures that are trading for solution the problem of education in Mexico are on track. I like know that our government finally this understanding that better way to end poverty is education. My opinion is necessary make conscious to students of important the education. I would like a México of progress and out of the hole in which tucked
Pedro Madrigal Velasco 2B
Well if you want students to go for desertion must teach them to expend energy from a very basic level of education.
The defection is because students do not have that capcidad to strive for things and also do not study what they love.
The socioeconomic status but affects more when they are not supporting these students.
Also the best way to avoid defection student is adequately supported not give more but also give less.
Adrian Alejandro Vizcaino Martinez 2B
Education and studies is subject of every day. Every day there are new topics on education, studies and as almost always the “Senior High Schools” is on everyone’s lips, I wish and hope that someday not heard problems with education.
Ramón Fco. Martínez Velázquez 1 "D"
I totally agree with you, ideas like yours are needed to support education, and as you mentioned increase not only students but also those who enter graduate. Hopefully we can improve it for some time in Mexico is not the best one of the best.
Jonathan Andres Llamas Cruz 2B
Good post, i’m agree that all students who desert, do it because a social or economic problem. This trouble has to be solved from the highest part, this is at home. If at home, there are not stability, the student, could leave school. Solved this problem at home, we can continue checking the program study conducted.
Ivan Alejandro Novela Macias 2°B
The government should pay attention to those numbers if you actually want the country forward. Would have to be one of the priorities of the country, if I could do anything would give more scholarships for careers that can help improve the country and increase support for them.
Rommel Salvador Juárez Rodríguez 2B
As the doctor José Manuel Ruiz says: the right to education goes beyond ensuring access to educational institutions, this is only a first step, a necessary but not sufficient premise. He is right, since with only guarantee access does not mean that it will already be plug “the hole in the bucket”. I think that teachers they must give greater preparation so you can increase the quality of students. As says a Professor “every good engineer is a series of teachers behind him that helped him to be what it is”.
Heredia Moran Alejandro Gilberto 2B
I agree with you that we must change, or at least improve, the systems of education in the country. This change is only possible with a dialogue in which objectively express the needs that arise. It must not come to violence, an example, and acts of the “normal school” of Michoacán. Is our decision, is in our power to change reality.
Juan Pedro Tintos 2 B
High school, university, the same topic again, and sadly, the same story of desertion and incomplete studies, what should we do to improve education in our country, what about we, the ones that are really doing what we should do, what about people who wants to study and they don`t do it just because of their poorness, what about those who are just taking place somewhere they don’t belong to, just wasting time and money, should authorities take them away? Should they quit? What can we do to take a good decision and don`t quit at the middle of our studies, lots and lots of questions…
Chan Remirez Francisco Javier 2 B
Sometimes students to enter educational institutions, only remain in wanting because of so many students don’t have enough space for all. It’s true that there are scholarships, but aren’t sufficient for many low income students. It’s wrong to know that majority of students don’t use the time at school and only to use for losing the time.
Luis Antonio Naranjo Mora 2B
I agree with your post, not worth the construction of Schools if failure rate don’t improve. Only us the community we can improve the situation. If we don’t cooperate to eradicate failure rate, construction of more Schools will not work.
María Lizbeth Ochoa Sarmienta 2B
always be the same with the management of education, there are only proposals, speeches, commercials, scholarships, supports, but they are only words there is something specific about the problem, just do it to advertise their campaigns, but the truth is that this problem will never end until there is a person who really wants to make a change.
Maria Dolores Adán Santillán 2°D
In my opinion, education in Mexico is very serious as there are statistics to prove it something we should do as a student, study and seek information from various sources and not conformists.
Jose CArlos Hernandez Hernandez 2B
The last day I was talking with a friend about the opportunity for young people entering in a career.
It’s useless to build more schools if it found that only half of students entering a career and ending.
Alvaro Arellano Gálvez 2A
In my opinion I think the quality of students has dropped by poor preparation or lack of knowledge of some teachers. But I think the fault is only of teachers but also from the students that sometimes we want very little of what teachers say. The only thing wrong is that it seems like everything just say numbers, but never mention something that is done to fix the problem.
Javier Alexis Cernas Avalos 2°D
1.- I agree with yours ideas, we need more people like you.
2.- Education should be more than public school.
3.- If we have a better education, maybe less people leave the school.
4.- Changes are necessary, because the same way of education is falling.
cesar castro carrillo 2D
1_ is right the student population increases allowing more applicants who graduate without seeking more options
2_ Your opinion seems to me very well because the schools expel some students simply because they lack some point and l is not given the opportunity to do so.
3_ His example I follow plots very well with the same seeing that is not working and not try to find a solution to why it is so effective.
4_ As you mention do to lessen the number of students who drop out is difficult but if not done now to achieve a strategy, in ten years we will be worse.
JOSE NICANOR RUIZ LOPEZ 2°D
I think that is regrettable that has many expulsions or defection in education since in her upper half reaches to 600 000 young per year. regrettable not have the resources because most of these people are most looking forward to having superarce.
Jose Antonio Aguiar Palacios 2 "A"
My opinion that the first way to grow the student population all know or rather have not led to believe during this time. But the second that if we know but do not assimilate it could be an important factor is that if you are in taking into account that at least you should do what the rules are imposed. There is also another peculiar reason enters the second is the abandonment by itself in institutions for different reasons. But I think we must give thanks those people who do something for the growing valley to the student population over time.
Armando Vázquez Zamora 2° B
I think, to build more schools will not work, if people are not attending, is very little the percentage of the population of young people who come to study a degree and her end for a better study have to do our part to improve.
Omar Alejandro Rios Del Toro 2A
It is clear that in order to increase the student population must finish first with the crisis. Today, more students drop by economic hardship for other reasons. Another good reason would be that students take more vocational guidance to avoid such desertes in the first half of training. Finally it is that we should do something for the good of our Mexico.
Carrillo Mosqueda Gustavo Alberto 2-B
My opinion is that to have and to study and economy depend on the family and especially the desire to be taken to study, like family problems and is to taken education serious.
salvador hernandes francisco 2 °a
But the second that if we know but do not assimilate it could be an important factor is that if you are in taking into account that at least you should do what the rules are imposed. There is also another peculiar reason enters the second is the abandonment by itself in institutions for different reasons. It is clear that in order to increase the student population must finish first with the crisis. Today, more students drop by economic hardship for other reasons. Another good reason would be that students take more vocational guidance to avoid such desertes in the first half of training.
j.Enrique Madrigal Díaz 2 A
I think most of the problems of education in Mexico is cast to the education system, sometimes teachers, some other schools and universities, but I think there is an important point that should also be taken into account and is, education of parents and guidance that parents should give their children and many of the problems sometimes arise from there.
Ivan Alejandro Vega Flores 2°A
I think you’re absolutely right, it’s important to help people start school, but it’s more important to keep them studying! It’s really common for students to suddenly drop out, for many reasons, and it ends up making groups that were formerly of 35 for example, groups of 30, 32, and it may not seem as much, but if that happens on every group, on every semester, career, school…. it ends up adding a lot of people who stopped their studies, and that’s incredibly sad.